Some 25 years has passed since the first edition of this book was published. Today it is regarded by many as standard work on the subject, and is retailing in over 175 countries. It is appropriate the sixth edition should be published at a time of great change in the international shipping industry. Opportunity has been taken particularly to enlarge the chapters on bills of lading, chartering, ships and their cargoes, containeriz- ation, and the international consignment. Additional illustrations have been provided especially on ship types. The sixth edition will be useful specifically for students taking courses sponsored by the Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers, Insti- tute of Freight Forwarders, Institute of Export, Institute of Trans- port Administration, Institute of Physical Management, Chartered Institute of Transport, Institute of Bankers, Institute of Marine Engineers, Institute of Marketing, Institute of Road Transport Engineers and Chambers of Commerce. It will also be ideal for students taking shipping, export, import, international trade and transport examinationslresearch courses at degree/diploma level at universities and polytechnics, not only in the UK, but also in Hong Kong, Nigeria, Malaysia, Jamaica, Jordan, USA, the Middle East, Europe, Pacific Rim Nations and Third World countries. The book remains compulsory reading on the Foundation Course in Overseas Trade - subject 'International Physical Distribution' - for which I was one of the four subject specialists responsible for the course's development under the aegis of HM Government in 1975 through the British Overseas Trade Board.
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1 Introduction.- 1.1 Scope of book.- 1.2 Function of shipping and its relationship to international trade.- 2 The ship.- 2.1 Main features of hull and machinery.- 2.2 Types of propulsion.- 2.3 Types and methods of tonnage measurement.- 2.4 Relationship between deadweight tonnage and cubic capacity.- 3 Ship design and construction.- 3.1 General principles and factors influencing design, type and size of ship.- 3.2 Safety and other regulations.- 3.3 Statutory regulations.- 3.4 Survey methods.- 3.5 Recent trends in ship design.- 3.6 General structure of cargo vessels.- 3.7 Transfer of class from one classification society to another.- 3.8 Economics of new and second-hand tonnage.- 4 Ships and their cargoes.- 4.1 Types of ships.- 4.2 Liners.- 4.3 Tramps.- 4.4 Specialized vessels.- 5 Manning of vessels.- 5.1 Duties and responsibilities of the Master.- 5.2 Ship's officers and crew manning.- 5.3 International Conference on Training and Certification of Seafarers 1978.- 5.4 Engagement and discharge of the crew.- 5.5 The National Maritime Board.- 5.6 General Council of British Shipping.- 5.7 International Shipping Federation (ISF).- 6 Customs House and ship's papers.- 6.1 Organization and workings of Customs & Excise.- 6.2 Importation and exportation of goods.- 6.3 Ship's papers.- 6.4 Ship's protest.- 6.5 Inland clearance depots.- 7 Maritime canals and inland waterways.- 7.1 Suez Canal Authority.- 7.2 The economic effect of canals and the level of dues charged.- 7.3 The influence of canals on ship design.- 7.4 Canal areas as points of economic growth.- 7.5 Inland waterways.- 7.6 Eurotunnel.- 8 Services performed by principal shipping organizations.- 8.1 General Council of British Shipping.- 8.2 International Association of Independent Tanker Owners (INTERTANKO).- 8.3 International Cargo Handling Co-ordination (ICHCA) Association.- 8.4 International Chamber of Shipping (ICS).- 8.5 International Maritime Organization (IMO).- 8.6 International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT).- 8.7 International Labour Organization.- 8.8 Council of European and Japanese National Shipowners' Associations (CENSA).- 8.9 International Committee of Passenger Lines.- 8.10 International Committee on the Organization of Traffic at Sea (ICOTAS).- 8.11 Lloyd's Register of Shipping.- 8.12 Bureau Veritas Classification Society Group.- 8.13 The Corporation of Lloyd's.- 8.14 Protection and indemnity associations.- 8.15 The Salvage Association.- 8.16 Baltic Exchange.- 8.17 Baltic International Freight Futures Exchange (BIFFEX).- 8.18 Freight Transport Association incorporating the British Shippers' Council.- 8.19 Simplification of International Trade Procedures Board (SITPRO).- 9 Passenger fares and freight rates.- 9.1 Theory of passenger fares.- 9.2 Short sea and estuarial passenger trades.- 9.3 Inclusive tours.- 9.4 Theory of freight rates and effect of air competition on cargo traffic.- 9.5 Relationship between liner and tramp rates.- 9.6 Relationship between voyage and time charter rates.- 9.7 Types of freight.- 9.8 Mail contracts and agreements.- 9.9 Market pricing.- 10 Liner conferences.- 10.1 Liner conference system.- 10.2 Advantages and disadvantages.- 10.3 Deferred rebate and contract systems.- 10.4 Government control of freight rates.- 10.5 Harmonization conferences.- 10.6 The future of liner conferences.- 11 Ship operation.- 11.1 Factors to consider in planning sailing schedules.- 11.2 Problems presented to shipowners by fluctuations in trade and unequal balance of trade.- 11.3 The relative importance of speed, frequency, reliability, cost and quality of sea transport.- 11.4 Voyage estimates.- 11.5 Indivisible loads.- 12 Bills of lading.- 12.1 Bills of Lading Act 1855.- 12.2 Carriage of Goods by Sea Acts 1924 and 1971.- 12.3 Salient points of a bill of lading.- 12.4 Types of bills of lading.- 12.5 Function of the bill of lading.- 12.6 International Convention concerning the Carriage of Goods by Rail (CIM).- 12.7 Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road (CMR).- 12.8 Combined Transport.- 12.9 Common short form bill of lading and common short form sea waybill.- 12.10 Standard Shipping Note.- 12.11 Gold Clause Agreement.- 12.12 Liability of the carrier.- 13 Cargoes.- 13.1 Cargo stowage/package overview.- 13.2 Stowage of cargo.- 13.3 Types and characteristics of cargo.- 13.4 Cargo-handling equipment.- 13.5 Types of packing.- 13.6 Dangerous cargo.- 14 The shipping company.- 14.1 Size and scope of the undertaking.- 14.2 Liner organization.- 14.3 Tramp organization.- 14.4 Holding companies and subsidiaries including ancillary activities of shipping undertakings.- 14.5 Ship management companies.- 14.6 Ownership of vessels.- 14.7 Capitalization and finance of shipping undertakings.- 14.8 Income and expenditure.- 14.9 Statistics.- 14.10 Computerization.- 14.11 Credit control.- 14.12 Freight forwarder.- 14.13 Chartered shipbroker.- 14.14 Ship's agents.- 15 Charter parties.- 15.1 Demise and non-demise charter parties.- 15.2 Voyage and time charter parties.- 15.3 Approved form of charter parties and related bills of lading used.- 15.4 Voyage estimates.- 15.5 Sale and purchase of ships.- 16 Containerization.- 16.1 Container ships - terminals - trades.- 16.2 Container types.- 16.3 Advantages/disadvantages of containerization.- 16.4 Container bases.- 16.5 International authorization.- 17 The international consignment.- 17.1 Factors to consider in evaluating the suitability of transport mode(s) for an international organization consignment.- 17.2 Delivery trade terms of sale and export contract.- 17.3 Receipt of export order.- 17.4 Progress of export order and check list.- 17.5 Function! procedures of export documentation.- 17.6 Data Interchange for Shipping (DISH) and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI).- 18 Ship management.- 18.1 Commercial aspects of ship management.- 18.2 Operating aspects of ship management.- 18.3 Technical aspects of ship management.- 18.4 Financial aspects of ship management.- 18.5 Investment aspects of ship management.- 19 Political aspects.- 19.1 Flag discrimination.- 19.2 Flags of convenience.- 19.3 Subsidies.- 19.4 Eastern bloc maritime fleet development.- 19.5 Shipping contribution to invisible exports.- 19.6 Conclusion.- Appendix A.- Further recommended textbook reading.- Appendix B.- Shipping terms and abbreviations.
Elements of Shipping by Alan E. Branch
Alan E. Branch
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