Specimen Handling, Preparation, and Treatments in Surface Characterization by Alvin W. Czanderna
With the development in the 1960s of ultrahigh vacuum equipment and techniques and electron, X-ray, and ion beam techniques to determine the structure and composition of interfaces, activities in the field of surface science grew nearly exponentially. Today surface science impacts all major fields of study from physical to biological sciences, from physics to chemistry, and all engineering disciplines. The materials and phenomena characterized by surface science range from se- conductors, where the impact of surface science has been critical to progress, to metals and ceramics, where selected contributions have been important, to bio- terials, where contributions are just beginning to impact the field, to textiles, where the impact has been marginal. With such a range of fields and applications, questions about sample selection, preparation, treatment, and handling are difficult to cover completely in one review article or one chapter. Therefore, the editors of this book have assembled a range of experts with experience in the major fields impacted by surface characterization. It is the only book which treats the subject of sample handling, preparation, and treatment for surface characterization. It is full of tricks, cautions, and handy tips to make the laboratory scientist's life easier. With respect to organization of the book, the topics range from discussion of vacuum to discussion of biological, organic, elemental or compound samples, to samples prepared ex situ or in situ to the vacuum, to deposition ofthin films. Generic considerations of sample preparation are also given.