1. Introduction and Historical. Overview 1. What Is Abnormal Behavior? Personal Distress. Disability. Violation of Social Norms. Dysfunction. History of Psychopathology. Early Demonology. Early Biological Explanations. The Dark Ages and Demonology. Development of Asylums. The Evolution of Contemporary Thought. An Early System of Classification. Biological Approaches. Psychological Approaches. The Mental Health Professions. Summary. 2. Current Paradigms in Psychopathology. The Genetic Paradigm. Behavior Genetics. Molecular Genetics. Gene-Environment Interactions. Reciprocal Gene-Environment Interactions. Evaluating the Genetic Paradigm. The Neuroscience Paradigm. Neurons and Neurotransmitters. Structure and Function of the Human Brain. The Autonomic Nervous System. The Neuroendocrine System. Neuroscience Approaches to Treatment. Evaluating the Neuroscience Paradigm. The Psychoanalytic Paradigm. Ego Analysis. Brief Psychodynamic Therapy. Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Paradigm. The Cognitive Behavioral Paradigm. Influences from Behavior Therapy. Cognitive Science. Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Evaluating the Cognitive Behavior Paradigm. Factors That Cut across the Paradigms. Emotion and Psychopathology. Sociocultural Factors and Psychopathology. Diathesis-Stress: An Integrative Paradigm. Multiple Perspectives on a Clinical Problem. Summary. 3. Diagnosis and Assessment. Cornerstones of Diagnosis and Assessment. Reliability. Validity. Classification and Diagnosis. The Diagnostic System of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV-TR). Specific Criticisms of the DSM. General Criticisms of Diagnosing Mental Illness. Psychological Assessment. Clinical Interviews. Assessment of Stress. Personality Tests. Intelligence Tests. Behavioral and Cognitive Assessment. Neurobiological Assessment. Brain Imaging: "Seeing the Brain". Neurotransmitter Assessment. Neuropsychological Assessment. Psychophysiological Assessment. A Cautionary Note about Neurobiological Assessment. Cultural and Ethnic Diversity and Assessment. Cultural Bias in Assessment. Strategies for Avoiding Cultural Bias in Assessment. Summary. 4. Research Methods in the Study of Psychopathology. Science and Scientific Methods. Approaches to Research on Psychopathology. The Case Study. The Correlational Method. The Experiment. Integrating the Findings of Multiple Studies. Summary. 5. Anxiety Disorders. Clinical Descriptions of the Anxiety Disorders. Phobias. Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia. Generalized Anxiety Disorder . Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder. Comorbidity in Anxiety Disorders. Gender and Sociocultural Factors in the Anxiety Disorders. Gender. Culture. Common Risk Factors across the Anxiety Disorders. Genetic Factors: Are Genes a Diathesis for Anxiety Disorders? Neurobiological Factors: The Fear Circuit and the Activity ofNeurotransmitters. Personality: Behavioral Inhibition and Neuroticism. Cognitive Factors: Perceived Control and Attending to Threat. The Social Environment: Actual Threats. Common Aspects of Treatments for the AnxietyDisorders. Commonalities across Psychological Treatments. Medications That Reduce Anxiety. Etiology and Treatment of Specific Anxiety Disorders. Etiology of Specific Phobias. Etiology of Social Phobia. Treatment of Phobias. Etiology of Panic Disorder. Treatment of Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia. Etiology of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Etiology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Etiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Summary. 6. Somatoform Disorders and Dissociative Disorders. Somatoform Disorders. Pain Disorder. Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Hypochondriasis. Somatization Disorder. Conversion Disorder. Etiology of Conversion Disorder. Etiology of Somatoform Disorders Other Than Conversion Disorder. Treatment of Somatoform Disorders. Dissociative Disorders. Dissociation and Memory. Dissociative Amnesia. Dissociative Fugue. Depersonalization Disorder. Dissociative Identity Disorder. Summary. 7. Stress and Health. What Is Stress? Coping and Health. Social Support and Health. Theories of the Stress-Illness Link. Theories That Focus on Biological Factors. Theories That Focus on Psychological Factors. Cardiovascular Disorders. Essential Hypertension. Coronary Heart Disease. Asthma. Clinical Description. Etiology. AIDS: A Challenge for the Behavioral Sciences. Clinical Description. Spread of the Disease. AIDS Prevention Efforts. A Cautionary Note on the Role of Knowledge about AIDS in AIDS Prevention. Gender and Health. Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, and Health. Treatment of Psychophysiological Disorders. Treating Hypertension and Reducing the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease. Biofeedback. Reducing Anger and Hostility, Depression, and Social Isolation. Stress Management. Cognitive Behavioral Interventions. Summary. 8. Mood Disorders. Clinical Descriptions and Epidemiology of Mood Disorders. Depressive Disorders. Bipolar Disorders. Subtypes of Depressive Disorders and Bipolar Disorders. Etiology of Mood Disorders. Neurobiological Factors in Mood Disorders. Social Factors in Depression: Life Events and Interpersonal Difficulties. Psychological Factors in Depression. Fitting Together the Etiological Factors in Depressive Disorders. Social and Psychological Factors in Bipolar Disorder. Treatment of Mood Disorders. Psychological Treatment of Depression. Psychological Treatment of Bipolar Disorder. Biological Treatment of Mood Disorders. Depression and Primary Care. A Final Note on the Treatment of Depression. Suicide. Epidemiology of Suicide and Suicide Attempts. Models of Suicide. Preventing Suicide. Summary. 9. Eating Disorders. Clinical Descriptions of Eating Disorders. Anorexia Nervosa. Bulimia Nervosa. Binge Eating Disorder. Etiology of Eating Disorders. Genetic Factors. Neurobiological Factors. Sociocultural Factors. Psychodynamic Views. Personality and Eating Disorders. Characteristics of Families. Child Abuse and Eating Disorders. Cognitive Behavioral Views. Treatment of Eating Disorders. Medications. Psychological Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa. Psychological Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa. Preventive Interventions for Eating Disorders. Summary. 10. Substance-Related Disorders. Clinical Descriptions, Prevalence, and Effects of Substance-Related Disorders. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence. Nicotine and Cigarette Smoking. Marijuana. Opiates. Stimulants. Hallucinogens, Ecstacy, and PCP. Etiology of Substance-Related Disorders. Sociocultural Factors. Psychological Factors. Genetic Factors. Neurobiological Factors. Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders. Treatment of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence. Treatment of Nicotine Dependence. Treatment of Illegal Drug Abuse and Dependence. Prevention of Substance-Related Disorders. Relapse Prevention. Summary. 11. Schizophrenia. Clinical Descriptions of Schizophrenia. Positive Symptoms. Negative Symptoms. Disorganized Symptoms. Other Symptoms. Schizophrenia in the DSM-IV-TR. Other Psychotic Disorders in the DSM-IV-TR. Etiology of Schizophrenia. Genetic Factors. Neurotransmitters. Brain Structure and Function. Psychological Stress. Developmental Studies. Treatment of Schizophrenia. Medications. Psychological Treatments. Remaining Challenges in the Treatment of Schizophrenia. Summary. 12. Personality Disorders. Classifying Personality Disorders. The DSM Approach to Classification. A Dimensional Approach to Personality: The Five-Factor Model. Odd/Eccentric Cluster. Paranoid Personality Disorder. Schizoid Personality Disorder. Schizotypal Personality Disorder. Etiology of the Personality Disorders in the Odd/Eccentric Cluster. Dramatic/Erratic Cluster. Borderline Personality Disorder. Histrionic Personality Disorder. Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy. Anxious/Fearful Cluster. Avoidant Personality Disorder. Dependent Personality Disorder. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder. Etiology of the Personality Disorders in the Anxious/Fearful Cluster. Treatment of Personality Disorders. Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. Treatment of Psychopathy. Summary. 13. Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders. Sexual Norms and Behavior. Gender and Sexuality. The Sexual Response Cycle. Sexual Dysfunctions. Clinical Descriptions of Sexual Dysfunctions. Etiology of Sexual Dysfunctions. Treatments for Sexual Dysfunctions. Gender Identity Disorder. Clinical Description of Gender Identity Disorder. Etiology of Gender Identity Disorder. Treatments of Gender Identity Disorder. The Paraphilias. Fetishism. Transvestic Fetishism. Pedophilia and Incest. Voyeurism. Exhibitionism. Frotteurism. Sexual Sadism and Sexual Masochism. Etiology of the Paraphilias. Treatments for the Paraphilias. Rape. The Crime. The Rapist: Understanding the Etiology of Rape. Psychological Treatment for Rapists. Reforming the Legal System. Summary. 14. Disorders of Childhood. Classification and Diagnosis of Childhood Disorders. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Clinical Descriptions, Prevalence, and Prognosis of ADHD. Etiology of ADHD. Treatment of ADHD. Conduct Disorder. Clinical Description, Prevalence, and Prognosis of Conduct Disorder. Etiology of Conduct Disorder. Treatment of Conduct Disorder. Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents. Depression. Anxiety. Learning Disabilities. Clinical Descriptions. Etiology of Learning Disabilities. Treatment of Learning Disabilities. Mental Retardation. Diagnosis and Assessment of Mental Retardation. Etiology of Mental Retardation. Treatment of Mental Retardation. Autistic Disorder. Clinical Descriptions. Etiology of Autistic Disorder. Treatment of Autistic Disorder. Summary. 15. Late Life and Psychological Disorders. Aging: Issues and Methods. Myths about Late Life. The Problems Experienced in Late Life. Research Methods in the Study of Aging. Cognitive Disorders in Late Life. Dementia. Delirium. Psychological Disorders in Late Life. Prevalence: How Common Are Psychological Disorders in LateLife? Medical Issues in Diagnosing Psychological Disorders. Major Depressive Disorder. Anxiety Disorders. Delusional (Paranoid) Disorders. Substance Abuse and Dependence. Adjusting Treatment with Older Adults. Living Situations: Community Living, Nursing Homes, and Other Alternatives. Nursing Homes. Alternative Living Settings. Summary. 16. Psychological Treatment. Challenges in Evaluating Treatment Outcomes. The Use of Treatment Manuals in Randomized Controlled Trials. Defining a Sample. Treating Disorders in the Real World. The Importance of Culture and Ethnicity in Psychological Treatment. African Americans and Psychological Treatment. Latinos and Psychological Treatment. Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Psychological Treatment. American Indians, Alaskan Natives, and Psychological Treatment. Psychotherapy Outcome Research in Ethnic Minority Populations. Specific Treatment Approaches: Issues and Treatment Outcome Research. Psychoanalytic Treatment. Experiential Therapies. Behavioral Therapies. Cognitive Behavior Treatment. Couples Therapy. Family Therapy. Psychotherapy Integration. Technical Eclecticism. Theoretical Integration. Common Factors and Process Research. Community Psychology and Prevention Science. Evaluation of Community Psychology. Political Factors in Community Psychology. Summary. 17. Legal and Ethical Issues. Criminal Commitment. The Insanity Defense. Competency to Stand Trial. Insanity, Mental Retardation, and Capital Punishment. Civil Commitment. Preventive Detention and Problems in the Prediction of Dangerousness. Toward Greater Protection of Patients' Rights. Deinstitutionalization, Civil Liberties, and Mental Health. Ethical Dilemmas in Therapy and Research. Ethical Restraints on Research. Informed Consent. Confidentiality and Privileged Communication. Who Is the Client or Patient? Choice of Goals. The Ethical and Legal Dimensions of Recovered Memories. Concluding Comment. Summary. Glossary. References. Quotation & Illustration Credits. Name Index. Subject Index.