R.J. Morris is Professor of Economic and Social History at Edinburgh University. His previous publications include Class, Sect and Party. The Making of the British Middle Class: Leeds, 1820-50; People and Society in Scotland Volume II, 1830-1914 (jointly edited with W Hamish Fraser), and The ILP on Clydeside, 1893-1932: from foundation to disintegration (jointly edited with Alan McKinlay). He is a contributor to the Penguin History of Scotland. Liam Kennedy is Professor of Economic and Social History at Queen's University, Belfast, and the author of several books on modern Irish history, including The Modern Industrialisation of Ireland, 1940-1988 and Colonialism, Religion and Nationalism in Ireland.