Surface Modification of Polymeric Biomaterials by Buddy D. Ratner
Applications of synthetic materials in medicine date back over 4000 year2. The Egyptians used linen as sutures. In the Roman Empire, gold was used in dentistry. Perhaps even earlier, ivory and bone may have been used in the body by practitioners of the healing arts. The historical origins of modem biomaterials science are also hard to precisely trace, but many of the ideas that define biomaterials as we know them today evolved in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Surface modification technology has played a prominent role in biomaterials science, and has paralleled the evolution of the modem field. In a symposium organized by the Artifical Heart Program of the NIH National Heart Institute and the Artificial Kidney program of the NIH National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, held in Atlantic City, New Jersey, in 1968, there were already a number of presentations on surface modification. Surface characterization at that time included scanning electron microscopy, ellipsometry, contact angle methods, and infrared internal reflection methods.