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The Chemical Industry By C. A. Heaton

The Chemical Industry
by C. A. Heaton

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The Chemical Industry Summary

The Chemical Industry by C. A. Heaton

Background This book provides an introduction to the main sectors of the chemical industry, and complements An Introduction to Industrial Chemistry (sub- sequently referred to as Volume I) which covers the physico-chemical principles of the subject, as well as introductory technical economics and chemical engineering. Processes considered include the large-scale production of polymers (up to 1000 tonnes per day for a single plant); the chlor-alkali, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus industries; and the production, on a smaller scale, of dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. The rapidly developing area of biotech- nology is dealt with under biological catalysis. The consequences of scale of operation are also highlighted in Chapter 7. Each chapter includes common themes, such as brief history, present position, major products and the future. The final chapter links together the predictions made for the future of each sector, to give an overall projection for the whole chemical industry; the quadrupling of oil prices in 1974 and the widespread recession at the beginning of the 1980s provide a salutary lesson about the difficulty of such projections.

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Table of Contents

Editorial introduction.- 1 Polymers.- 1.1 Introduction and history.- 1.1.1 Current state of the polymer industry.- 1.1.2 Commodity and engineering polymers.- 1.2 Production of polymers.- 1.3 Nature of polymers.- 1.4 Thermoplastics and thermosets.- 1.5 Mode of polymerization.- 1.5.1 Chain polymerization.- 1.5.2 Step polymerization.- 1.6 Thermodynamics of polymerization.- 1.7 Homopolymers and copolymers.- 1.7.1 Types of homopolymers.- 1.7.2 Types of copolymers.- 1.8 Mechanism of polymerization.- 1.8.1 Free-radical mechanisms.- 1.8.2 Ionic chain mechanisms.- 1.9 Industrial polymerization techniques.- 1.9.1 Bulk polymerization.- 1.9.2 Diluent processes.- 1.10 Properties of polymers.- 1.10.1 Glass transition temperature Tg.- 1.10.2 Parameters affecting Tg.- 1.10.3 Crystallinity in polymers.- 1.10.4 Factors influencing Tm (the crystalline melting point).- 1.10.5 Tg, Tm and crystallinity.- 1.11 Suitability of polymers and mechanical properties.- 1.12 Fibres.- 1.13 Elastomers and rubbers.- 1.14 Composites.- 1.14.1 Stabilizers.- 1.14.2 Plasticizers.- 1.14.3 Fillers.- 1.14.4 Fibre reinforcement.- 1.14.5 Blends ('polymer alloys').- 1.15 Individual polymers.- 1.15.1 Polyolefins (PE, PP and blends).- 1.15.2 Polystyrene (PS).- 1.15.3 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC).- 1.15.4 Acrylate polymers.- 1.15.5 Fluorocarbon polymers.- 1.15.6 Acetal.- 1.15.7 Diene elastomers.- 1.15.8 Polysiloxanes.- 1.15.9 Polyamides.- 1.15.10 Polyesters.- 1.15.11 Thermoset polyester resins.- 1.15.12 Polycarbonates.- 1.15.13 Polyurethanes.- 1.15.14 Epoxy polymers.- 1.15.15Formaldehyde thermosets.- 1.16 Future trends.- References and bibliography.- 2 Dyestuffs.- 2.1 Origin.- 2.1.1 Developments 1857-1900.- 2.1.2 Major advances from 1900 onwards.- 2.2 The economic importance of the dyestuffs industry.- 2.2.1 World production and value.- 2.2.2 The UK industry.- 2.3 Colour and constitution.- 2.3.1 Colour.- 2.3.2 Absorption photometry.- 2.3.3 Absorption and quantum theory.- 2.3.4 Theory of O. N. Witt (1876).- 2.3.5 Quantitative molecular orbital (MO) studies.- 2.4 Classification of dyes.- 2.4.1 Classification according to structure.- 2.4.2 Classification according to application.- 2.4.3 Principal applications.- 2.5 Major products.- 2.5.1 Large-output intermediates.- 2.5.2 Intermediates specifically for dyes.- 2.6 Principal dyes, pigments and related products.- 2.6.1 Dyes for cotton and viscose.- 2.6.2 Dyes for wool.- 2.6.3 Dyes for synthetic polymer fibres.- 2.6.4 Synthetic organic pigments.- 2.6.5 Dyes in non-textile applications.- 2.7 Dyestuffs manufacture.- 2.7.1 The evolution of modern plant.- 2.7.2 Examples of manufacturing processes.- 27.3 Cyanuric chloride.- 2.7.4 Indigo: the techno-economics.- 2.7.5 Raw materials control and in-process testing.- 2.7.6 Finished materials and in-process assessment.- 2.7.7 Working conditions and ecological constraints.- 2.7.8 The Factories Act.- 2.8 Current and future trends.- 2.8.1 Current rationalization of production capacity and product range.- 2.8.2 Advances in azo manufacture.- 2.8.3 Future trends.- References and bibliography.- 3 The chlor-alkali, sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus industries.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 The chlor-alkali industry.- 3.2.1 Introduction.- 3.2.2 The production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide.- 3.2.3 The production of sodium carbonate.- 3.3 The nitrogen-based industries.- 3.3.1 Introduction.- 3.3.2 Theoretical considerations.- 3.3.3 Manufacture of ammonia.- 3.3.4 Uses of ammonia.- 3.3.5 The production of nitric acid.- 3.3.6 Uses of nitric acid.- 3.3.7 Production of ammonium nitrate.- 3.3.8 Uses of ammonium nitrate.- 3.3.9 Manufacture of urea.- 3.3.10 Uses of urea.- 3.4 The sulphur industry.- 3.4.1 Introduction.- 3.4.2 Manufacture and extraction of sulphur.- 3.4.3 Manufacture of sulphuric acid.- 3.4.4 Uses of sulphuric acid.- 3.5 Phosphorus-based industry.- 3.5.1 Introduction.- 3.5.2 Chemistry of the wet process.- 3.5.3 Manufacture of phosphoric acid.- 3.5.4 Uses of phosphoric acid and its salts.- 3.6 The future demand for bulk chemicals.- 3.7 Future developments 167 References and bibliography.- 4 The pharmaceutical industry.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 The world pharmaceutical market.- 4.2.1 Introduction.- 4.2.2 Companies.- 4.2.3 Products.- 4.3 Some representative drugs.- 4.3.1 The alimentary system.- 4.3.2 The cardiovascular system.- 4.3.3 The central nervous system.- 4.3.4 Analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents.- 4.3.5 The respiratory system.- 4.3.6 Growth and metabolism.- 4.3.7 Fertility.- 4.3.8 Infectious diseases.- 4.4 The initiation of a project in the pharmaceutical industry.- 4.4.1 General considerations.- 4.4.2 The research portfolio.- 4.4.3 The research phase.- 4.4.4 The development phase.- 4.5 Financial and economic considerations.- 4.5.1 Research costs.- 45.2 Effects on the UK economy.- 4.6 Health benefits.- 4.7 Future trends.- 4.7.1 Scientific and medical.- 4.7.2 Economic and political factors 226 References and bibliography.- 5 Agrochemicals.- 5.1 Introduction229.- 5.1.1 Origins of the industry.- 5.1.2 Artificial fertilizers.- 5.1.3 Pesticides.- 5.2 Present position of the industry.- 5.2.1 Financial importance of pesticides.- 5.2.2 General characteristics of the agrochemicals industry.- 5.2.3 Control of the use of pesticides.- 5.3 Discovery and development of new pesticides.- 5.3.1 Outline schemes.- 5.3.2 Cost, time scale and success rate.- 5.3.3 Patents position.- 5.3.4 Summary.- 5.4 Fungicides.- 5.4.1 Introduction.- 5.4.2 Inorganic fungicides.- 5.4.3 Dithiocarbamates.- 5.4.4 Sulphenimides.- 5.4.5 Systemic fungicides.- 5.5 Herbicides.- 5.5.1 Introduction.- 5.5.2 Phenoxyalkane carboxylic acids.- 5.5.3 Substituted ureas.- 5.5.4 Triazines.- 5.5.5 Bipyridylium salts.- 5.5.6 Glyphosate.- 5.5.7 Sulphonylureas.- 5.5.8 Other herbicides.- 5.5.9 Plant growth regulators.- 5.6 Insecticides.- 5.6.1 Introduction.- 5.6.2 Naturally-occurring insecticides.- 5.6.3 Synthetic insecticides.- 5.6.4 Alternative methods of insect control.- 5.7 Pesticide resistance.- 5.8 Integrated pest management.- 5.9 The future 281 References and bibliography.- 6 Biological catalysis and biotechnology.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Microbial synthesis of primary metabolites.- 6.2.1 Organic solvents.- 6.2.2 Carboxylic acids.- 6.2.3 Amino acids.- 6.3 Microbial synthesis of secondary metabolites.- 6.3.1 Penicillin.- 6.3.2 New approaches to the synthesis of secondary metabolites.- 6.4 Microbial synthesis of proteins.- 6.4.1 Biologically active proteins.- 6.4.2 Single-cell protein.- 6.5 Microbial transformations.- 6.5.1 L-Ascorbate (Vitamin C).- 6.5.2 D-Ephedrine.- 6.5.3 Steroid transformations.- 6.6 Enzymatic processes.- 6.6.1 The synthesis of fructose from starch.- 6.6.2 Hydrolysis of penicillin G to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA).- 6.6.3 The resolution of DL-methionine.- 6.6.4 Stereospecific synthesis of amino acids.- 6.6.5 Alcohol dehydrogenases.- 6.6.6 Lipase and other unusual reactions.- 6.7 Artificial enzymes 344 References and bibliography.- 7 The future.- 7.1 Current situation.- 7.2 Significant influences.- 7.3 The future.- 7.3.1 Constraints.- 7.3.2 Prospects 353 Reference.

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The Chemical Industry by C. A. Heaton
C. A. Heaton
Used - Good
Kluwer Academic Publishers Group
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