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Perspectives on Personality By Charles S. Carver

Perspectives on Personality
by Charles S. Carver

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Perspectives on Personality Summary

Perspectives on Personality: International Edition by Charles S. Carver

The various perspectives of the field of personality provide the organizing framework for this text. Each perspective is presented in two chapters and is introduced by a prologue that describes the assumptions and themes of the perspective.

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Table of Contents

Part One: An introduction 1



Defining Personality 3

Why Use Personality as a Concept? 4

A Working Definition 5

Two Fundamental Themes in Personality Psychology 5

Theory in Personality Psychology 6

What Do Theories Do? 6

Evaluating Theories:The Role of Research 7

What Else Makes a Theory Good? 8

Perspectives On Personality 9

Groupings among Theories 9

How Distinct Are the Perspectives? 10

Another Kind of Perspective 11

Organization Within Chapters 11

Assessment 12

Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change 12

Summary 12



Gathering Information 14

Sources: Observe Yourself and Observe Others 14

Seeking Depth: Case Studies 15

Seeking Generality: Studies of Many People 16

Establishing Relationships Among Variables 17

Correlation between Variables 18

Two Kinds of Significance 20

Causality and a Limitation on Inference 20

Search for Causality: Experimental Research 21

Recognizing Types of Study 24

What Kind of Research Is Best? 24

Multifactor Studies 25

ReadingFigures from Multifactor Research 26

Summary 27



Sources of Information 28

Reliability of Measurement 30

Internal Consistency 30

Inter-Rater Reliability 31

Stability across Time 32

Validity of Measurement 32

Construct Validity 33

Criterion Validity 34

Convergent Validity 34

Discriminant Validity 35

Face Validity 35

Culture and Validity 36

Response Sets and Loss of Validity 36

Two Rationales Behind The Development of Assessment Devices 37

Rational, or Theoretical,Approach 38

Empirical Approaches 38

Better Assessment: A Never-Ending Search 39

Summary 40

Part Two: The Dispositional Perspective:

Major Themes and Underlying

Assumptions 43



Types and Traits 45

Nomothetic and Idiographic Views of Traits 46

What Traits Matter? 46

A Key Tool: Factor Analysis 47

Let Reality Reveal Itself: Cattell's Approach 49

Start from a Theory: Eysenck's Approach 50

Another Theoretical Starting Point:The Interpersonal Circle 52

The Five-Factor Model:The Basic

Dimensions of Personality? 52

What Are the Five Factors? 53

Reflections of the Five Factors in Behavior 55

The Five-Factor Model in Relation to Earlier Models 57

Some Additional Variations and Some Cautions 58

Are Superordinate Traits the Best Level to Use? 59

Traits, Situations, and Interactionism 59

Is Behavior Actually Traitlike? 59

Situationism 60

Interactionism 60

Individual Differences in Consistency 61

Other Aspects of Interactionism 62

Was the Problem Ever Really as Bad as It Seemed? 62

Interactionism Becomes A New View of Traits: Context-Dependent Expression of Personality 63

Fitting the Pieces Together:Views of Traits and Behavior 64

Assessment 65

Comparing Individuals: Personality Profiles 65

Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change 66

The Five-Factor Model and Personality Disorders 67

Interactionism in Behavior Problems 68

Behavior Change 68

Trait Psychology: Problems and Prospects 68

Summary 70


Basic Theoretical Elements 73

Needs 73

Motives 74

Press 74

Needs, Motives, and Personality 75

MotiveStatesand Motive Dispositions 75

Murray's System of Needs 76

Measuring Motives:The Thematic Apperception Test 76

Studies of Specific Dispositional Needs 78

Need for Achievement 78

Need for Power 80

Need for Affiliation 82

Need for Intimacy 83

Patterned Needs: inhibited Power Motive 84

Implicit and Self-Attributed Motives 85

Incentive Value 85

Implicit Motives Are Different From Self-Attributed Motives 86

Approach and Avoidance Motives 87

Approach and Avoidance in Other Motives 88

The Methods of Personology 89

Assessment 89

Motives and the Five-Factor Trait Model 91

Traits and Motives as Distinct and Complementary 91

Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change 92

Need for Power and Alcohol Abuse 92

Focusing On and Changing Motivation 93

Need and Motive Theories: Problems and Prospects 94

Summary 95

Part Three: The Biological Perspective:

Major Themes and Underlying

Assumptions 99



Determining The Role of Inheritance in Personality 102

Twin Study Method 103

Adoption Research 104

What Personality Qualities Are Inherited?105

Temperaments:Activity, Sociability, and Emotionality 105

Other Views of Temperaments 106

Inheritance of Traits 107

Temperaments and the Five-Factor Model 108

Genetics of Other Qualities: How Distinct Are They? 108

Inheritance and Sexual Orientation 109

Molecular Genetics and New Sources of Evidence 110

Environmental Effects 111

The Size of Environmental Influences 111

The Nature of Environmental Influences 112

Evolution and Human Behavior 112

Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology 113

Genetic Similarity and Attraction 115

Mate Selection and Competition for Mates 116

Mate Retention and Other Issues 118

Aggression and the Young Male Syndrome 119

Assessment 120

Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change 121

Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder 121

Substance Use and Antisocial Behavior 122

Evolution and Problems in Behavior 123

Behavior Change: How Much Is Possible? 123

Inheritance and Evolution: Problems and Prospects 124

Summary 126



Eysenck: Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Brain Functions 129

Extraversion and Cortical Arousal 129

Neuroticism and Emotional Arousal 130

Incentive Approach System 130

Behavioral Approach,Activation, Engagement, or Facilitation 131

More Issues in Approach 132

Neurotransmitters and the Approach System 132

Behavioral Avoidance, or Withdrawal, System 134

A Revised View of BIS Function 135

Neurotransmitters and the Avoidance System 135

Relating Approach and Avoidance Systems to Traits or Temperaments 136

The Role of Sociability 136

The Role of Impulsivity 137

Impulse, Constraint, Sensation Seeking, and Effortful Control 138

Functions of the Sensation-SeekingDimension 138

Relating IUSS to Traits or Temperaments 139

Two Sources of Impulse and Restraint 139

Neurotransmitters and Impulse versus Constraint 140

Hormones and Personality 142

Hormones, the Body, and the Brain 142

Early Hormonal Exposure and Behavior 143

Testosterone and Adult Personality 144

Cycle of Testosterone and Action 146

Testosterone, Dominance, and Evolutionary Psychology 147

Responding to Stress: Men,Women, and Oxytocin 148

Assessment 149

Electroencephalograms 149

Neuroimaging 150

Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change 151

Biological Bases of Anxiety, Depression, and Antisocial Personality 151

Medication in Therapy 152

Biological Processes and Personality: Problems and Prospects 153

Summary 154

Part Four: The Psychoanalytic Perspective:

Major Themes and Underlying

Assumptions 157



The Topographical Model of Mind 162

Aspects of Personality:The Structural

Model 163

Id 163

Ego 164

Superego 166

Balancing the Forces 167

Motivation:The Drives of Personality 167

Cathexes and the Use of Energy 169

Two Classes of Drives: Life and Death Instincts 170

Coming together of Libidinal and Aggressive Energies 170

Catharsis 171

Displacement and Sublimation of Motive Forces 172

Psychosexual Development 173

The Oral Stage 174

The Anal Stage 175

The Phallic Stage 176

The Latency Period 179

The Genital Stage 179

Psychoanalytic Structure and Process: Problems and Prospects 180

Summary 182



Anxiety 185

Mechanisms of Defense 185

Repression 186

Denial 187

Projection 188

Rationalization 189

Intellectualization 189

Reaction Formation 190

Regression 190

Identification 191

Displacement and Sublimation 191

Research on Defenses 191

Evidence of Unconscious Conflict 192

Exposing the Unconscious 193

The Psychopathology of Everyday Life 193

Dreams 195

Humor 197

Projective Techniques of Assessment 197

Rorschach Inkblot Test 198

Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change 200

Origins of Problems 200

Behavior Change 201

Does Psychoanalytic Therapy Work? 204

Psychoanalytic Defense: Problems and

Prospects 205

Summary 206

Part Five: The Neoanalytic Perspective:

Major Themes and Underlying

Assumptions 209


Principles of Ego Psychology 213

Shifting the Emphasis from the Id to the Ego 213

Adaptation and Autonomy 214

The Ego,Adaptation, and Competence Motivation 215

Is Competence Striving Automatic, or Is It Done to Remedy inferiority? 216

Ego Control and Ego Resiliency 217

Ego Control, Ego Resiliency, and the Five-Factor Model 220

Ego Development 220

Early Ego Development 221

Middle Stages of Ego Development: Control of Impulses 222

Advanced Stages of Ego Development:Taking Even More into Account 223

Research on Ego Development 224

Ego Development and the Five-Factor Model 226

Assessment 226

Assessment of Lifestyles 227

Assessment of Level of Ego Development 227

Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change 228

Inferiority and Superiority Complexes 228

Overcontrol and Undercontrol 230

Behavior Change 230

Ego Psychology: Problems and Prospects 230

Summary 232


Object Relations Theories 234

Self Psychology 236

Attachment Theory and Personality 237

Attachment Patterns in Adults 239

How Many Patterns? 240

Stability and Specificity 240

Other Reflections of Adult Attachment 241

Attachment Patterns and the Five-Factor Model 243

Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development 243

Ego Identity, Competence, and the Experience of Crisis 244

Infancy 245

Early Childhood 245

Preschool 246

School Age 247

Adolescence 247

Young Adulthood 249

Adulthood 250

Old Age 251

The Epigenetic Principle 251

Identity as Life Story 252

Linking Erikson's Theory to Other Psychosocial Theories 253

Assessment 253

Object Relations,Attachment, and the Focus of Assessment 253

Play in Assessment 254

Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change 255

Narcissism as a Disorder of Personality 255

Basic Anxiety,Vicious Cycles, and Neurotic Needs 255

Attachment and Depression 257

Behavior Change 258

Psychosocial Theories: Problems and Prospects 259

Summary 259

Part Six: The Learning Perspective:

Major Themes and Underlying

Assumptions 263


Classical Conditioning 266

Basic Elements 266

Classical Conditioning as Anticipatory Learning 267

Discrimination, Generalization, and Extinction in Classical Conditioning 268

Emotional Conditioning 270

Instrumental Conditioning 270

The Law of Effect 270

Reinforcement and Punishment 272

Discrimination, Generalization, and Extinction in Instrumental Conditioning 273

Altering the Shape of Behavior 275

Schedules of Reinforcement 275

The Partial Reinforcement Effect 277

Learning "Irrational" Behavior 278

Reinforcement of Qualities of Behavior 279

Assessment 279

Techniques 280

Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change 281

Classical Conditioning of Emotional Responses 281

Additional Benefits 283

Classical Conditioning of Aversion 284

Conditioning and Context 284

Instrumental Conditioning and Maladaptive Behaviors 285

Instrumental Conditioning of Conflict 286

Instrumental Conditioning and Biofeedback 286

Conditioning Theories: Problems and Prospects 287

Summary 288



Elaborations On Conditioning

Processes 292

Social Reinforcement 292

Vicarious Emotional Arousal 293

Vicarious Reinforcement 294

Semantic Generalization 295

Rule-Based Learning 295

Expectancies Concerning Outcomes 296

Locus-of-Control Expectancies 297

Efficacy Expectancies 299

Observational Learning 301

Acquisition versus Performance 303

Manifestations of Cognitive and Social

Learning 304

Modeling and Sex-Role Acquisition 304

Modeling of Aggression and the Issue of Media

Violence 306

Assessment 307

Problems in Behavior, and Behavior

Change 308

Conceptualizing Behavioral Problems 308

Modeling-Based Therapy for Skill Deficits 309

Modeling and Responses to Fear 311

Therapeutic Changes in Efficacy Expectancy 311

Self-instructions and Cognitive Behavioral Modification 313

Social-Cognitive Learning Theories: Problems and Prospects 314

Summary 315

Part Seven: The Phenomenological

Perspective: Major Themes and

Underlying Assumptions 319




Self-Actualization 322

The Need for Positive Regard 322

Contingent Self-Worth 324

Self-Determination 325

Introjection and Identification 325

Need for Relatedness 326

Self-Concordance 327

Free Will 327

The Self and Processes of Defense 328

Incongruity, Disorganization, and Defense 328

Self-Esteem Maintenance and Enhancement 329

Self-Handicapping 331

Stereotype Threat 331

Self-Actualization and Maslow's Hierarchy of

Motives 332

Characteristics of Frequent Self-Actualizers 334

Peak Experiences 336

Existential Psychology: Being and Death 337

The Existential Dilemma 337

Emptiness 338

Terror Management 338

Assessment 340

Interviews in Assessment 340

Measuring the Self-Concept by Q-Sort 341

Measuring Self-Actualization 342

Measuring Autonomy and Control 342

Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change 343

Client-Centered Therapy 344

Beyond Therapy to Personal Growth 345

Humanistic Theories: Problems and Prospects 345

Summary 347


Personal Constructs and Personality 351

Using Constructs 352

Constructs Are Bipolar 353

The Role of Recurrences 354

Range and Focus of Convenience 354

Elaboration and Change in Construct Systems 355

Organization among Constructs 356

Individuality of Constructs 357

Similarities and Differences between People 359

Role Taking 359

Personal Constructs and Behavioral Consistency 360

Assessment 361

Kelly's Role Construct Repertory Test 361

Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change 362

Personal Constructs and Psychological Distress 363

Dealing with Anxiety and Threat 364

Fixed-Role Therapy 365

Personal Construct Theory: Problems and Prospects 366

Summary 367

Part Eight: The Cognitive Self-Regulation

Perspective: Major Themes and Underlying

Assumptions 369


Representing Your Experience Of The World 373

Schemas and Their Development 373

Effects of Schemas 373

Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, and Scripts 374

Socially Relevant Schemas 375

Self-Schemas 375

Entity versus incremental Schemas 376

Attribution 377

Activation of Memories 378

Priming and the Use of Information 379

Nonconscious Influences on Behavior 380

Connectionist Views of Mental Organization 381

Dual-Process Models 383

Explicit and Implicit Knowledge 385

Broader Views On Cognition and Personality 386

Cognitive Person Variables 386

Personality as a Cognitive-Affective Processing System 388

Assessment 389

Think-Aloud, Experience Sampling, and Self-Monitoring 390

Contextualized Assessment 391

Diagnostic Categories as Fuzzy Sets 391

Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change 392

Information-Processing Deficits 392

Depressive Self-Schemas 392

Cognitive Therapy 394

Contemporary Cognitive Theories: Problems and Prospects 395

Summary 396


From Cognition to Behavior 399

Schemas and Actions 379

Intentions 399

Goals 400

Goal Setting 400

Implementation intentions and the Importance of Strategies 401

Deliberative and Implemental Mindsets 402

Self-Regulation and Feedback Control 402

Feedback Control 402

Self-Directed Attention and the Action of the Comparator 404

Hierarchical Organization 405

Issues Concerning Hierarchical Organization 407

Evidence of Hierarchies 407

Emotions 408

Effects of Expectancies: Effort versus Disengagement 409

Partial Disengagement 410

Further Themes in Self-Regulation 411

Approach and Avoidance 411

Intention-Based and Stimulus-Based Action 411

Self-Regulation As Self-Control 413

Assessment 414

Assessment of Self-Regulatory Qualities 414

Assessment of Goals 415

Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change 415

Problems as Conflicts among Goals and Lack of Strategy Specifications 415

Problems from an inability to Disengage 416

Self-Regulation and the Process of Therapy 417

Therapy is Training in Problem Solving 418

Self-Regulation Theories: Problems and Prospects 419

Summary 420

Part Nine: Personality in

Perspective 423


Similarities Among Perspectives 426

Psychoanalysis and Biology: Evolutionary Psychology and the Structural Model 426

Psychoanalysis and Evolutionary Psychology:Fixations and Mating Patterns 427

Psychoanalysis and Conditioning 428

Psychoanalysis and Self-Regulation: Hierarchy and the Structural Model 429

Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Processes 429

Social Learning and Cognitive Self-Regulation Views 431

Neoanalytic and Cognitive Self-Regulation Perspectives 433

Maslow's Hierarchy and Hierarchies of Self-Regulation 434

Self-Actualization and Self-Regulation 435

Dispositions and Their Equivalents in Other Models 435

Recurrent Themes,Viewed From Different Angles 435

Impulse and Restraint 436

Individual versus Group Needs 437

Combining Perspectives 437

Eclecticism 438

An Example: Biology and Learning as Complementary Influences on Personality 438

Which Theory Is Best? 439

Summary 440

Additional information

Perspectives on Personality: International Edition by Charles S. Carver
Charles S. Carver
Used - Very Good
Pearson Education (US)
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