Revolution and Counter-revolution 1644-51 by David Stevenson
In 1644 a massive army of Scottish Covenanters moved over the border into England, claiming they were not invading their neighbour but acting to save its liberties, by helping ensure that the absolutist King Charles I did not win the civil war. It was a daring move but the Covenanters believed it necessary for defensive reasons, for if Charles triumphed over parliament in England he would then attempt to overthrow the Covenanters' regime. The Covenanters proved over-ambitious and over-confident, driven by their conviction that God would lead them to triumph. They did play a decisive role in parliament's victory, but not in the sensational way they had hoped, and the English were reluctant to give them the credit - or to accept their vision of a Scottish dominated, Presbyterian Britain. Moreover, invading England provoked a major royalist rebellion in Scotland, led by the Marquis of Montrose. Disillusioned by the English parliament, some sought a compromise with the king, but a new invasion of England in 1648 led to disaster.
Extremist Covenanters then seized power in Scotland and sought to impose radical policies, but they were forced by a growing royalist revival to again fall back on monarchy, provoking English invasion led by Oliver Cromwell. This book continues the story begun in The Scottish Revolution of the Covenanters' sudden rise to power, but how their soaring ambitions and religious zeal in the end led Scotland to an unparalleled disaster.