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Multicultural Education By James A. Banks

Multicultural Education by James A. Banks

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Multicultural Education Summary

Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives by James A. Banks

As diversity continues to increase in the United States, ethnic, cultural, social-class, and linguistic gaps are widening between teachers and their students. The rapidly changing educational landscape presents unique challenges and opportunities for addressing diversity both creatively and constructively in schools. Multicultural Education helps current and future educators fully understand sophisticated concepts of culture; become more effective practitioners in diverse classrooms; and view race, class, gender, social class, and exceptionality as intersectional concepts. Now in its tenth edition, this bestselling textbook assists educators to effectively respond to the ways race, social class, and gender interact to influence student behavior and learning. Contributions from leading authorities in multicultural education discuss the effects of class and religion on education; differences in educational opportunities for male, female, and LGBTQ students; and issues surrounding non-native English speakers, students of color, and students with disabilities. Contemporary in relevance, this timely volume promotes multicultural education as a process of school reform. Practical advice helps teachers increase student academic achievement, work effectively with parents, improve classroom assessment, and benefit from diversity.

About James A. Banks

Cherry A. McGee Banks is professor of education emeritus at the University of Washington, Bothell. She is the author of Improving Multicultural Education: Lessons from the Intergroup Education Movement and co-editor of the Handbook of Research of Multicultural Education. Professor Banks has served on several national committees and boards and is a member the Seattle Art Museum Board of Trustees. James A. Banks is the Kerry and Linda Killinger Endowed Chair in Diversity Studies Emeritus at the University of Washington, Seattle. His research focuses on multicultural education and diversity and citizenship education in a global context. He is the author of An Introduction to Multicultural Education (Sixth Edition, Pearson) and editor of Citizenship Education and Global Migration: Implications for Theory, Research, and Teaching, published by the American Educational Research Association (AERA).

Table of Contents

Preface xvii Part 1 Issues and Concepts 1 1 Multicultural Education: Characteristics and Goals 3 by James A. Banks 1.1 The Nature of Multicultural Education 3 1.2 The Historical Development of Multicultural Education 4 1.2.1 How Multicultural Education Developed 6 1.3 The Nature of Culture in the United States 6 1.3.1 The Meaning of Culture 6 1.3.2 Identification and Description of the U.S. Core Culture 7 1.3.3 Equality 7 1.3.4 Individualism and Individual Opportunity 8 1.3.5 Individualism and Groupism 8 1.3.6 Expansionism and Manifest Destiny 8 1.3.7 Microcultures in the United States 9 1.3.8 Groups and Group Identification 11 1.3.9 The Teaching Implications of Group Identification 12 1.3.10 The Interaction of Race, Class, and Gender 13 1.4 The Social Construction of Categories 14 1.4.1 Gender 14 1.4.2 Sexual Orientation 14 1.4.3 Race 14 1.4.4 Social Class 15 1.4.5 Exceptionality 15 1.5 The Dimensions of Multicultural Education 16 1.5.1 Content Integration 17 1.5.2 The Knowledge Construction Process 17 1.5.3 Prejudice Reduction 18 1.5.4 An Equity Pedagogy 18 1.5.5 An Empowering School Culture and Social Structure 19 1.6 The School as a Social System 20 Summary 21 Questions and Activities 21 References 22 2 Culture, Teaching, and Learning 25 by Christina Convertino, Bradley A. Levinson, and Norma Gonzalez 2.1 Getting to Know Culture 26 2.1.1 Some Early Origins of the Construct of Culture 27 2.1.2 Connecting Culture with Education 28 2.1.3 Culture Change and Changes to Culture 29 2.2 Culture and Educational Achievement 32 2.2.1 Cultural Deficit Models 32 2.2.2 Cultural Difference Model and Mismatch Hypothesis 33 2.2.3 Educational Achievement: Voluntary versus Involuntary Immigrant Students 34 2.3 Putting Culture to Work: Culture and Learning in the 21st Century 35 2.3.1 Rethinking Learning and Cultural Processes in Education 36 2.3.2 Learning in Context: What Teachers Need to Know 36 Summary 38 Questions and Activities 38 References 38 Part 2 Social Class and Religion 41 3 Social Class and Education 43 by Lois Weis, Seong Won Han, and Hyunmyung Jo 3.1 Education and the Production of Social and Economic Inequalities 45 3.2 Ability Grouping and Tracking 47 3.3 Official Knowledge and Its Distribution 48 3.4 Access and Outcomes in the Postsecondary Sector 49 3.5 Research on Class Privilege 52 Summary 54 Questions and Activities 54 References 54 4 Christian Nation or Pluralistic Culture: Religion in American Life 60 by Charles H. Lippy 4.1 Europeans Plant Christianity in North America 61 4.2 Early Signs of Diversity 61 4.3 Common Themes 62 4.4 The Spread of Evangelical Protestantism 63 4.5 Religious Freedom and the Separation of Church and State 64 4.6 Diversity, Religious Freedom, and the Courts 67 4.7 Pluralism Becomes the Norm 70 4.8 New Faces of Pluralism 72 4.9 Summary and Educational Implications 76 4.10 Resources 76 Questions and Activities 78 References 78 Part 3 Gender 81 5 Gender Bias: Past, Present, and Future 83 by David Sadker, Karen Zittleman, and Melissa Koch 5.1 The Hidden Civil Rights Struggle 84 5.2 Report Card: The Cost of Sexism in Schools 86 5.3 Gender Bias in the Classroom: The Curriculum 89 5.3.1 Invisibility: What You Don't See Makes a Lasting Impression 90 5.3.2 Stereotyping: Glib Shortcuts 90 5.3.3 Imbalance and Selectivity: A Tale Half-Told 90 5.3.4 Unreality: Rose-Colored Glasses 90 5.3.5 Fragmentation: An Interesting Sideshow 91 5.3.6 Linguistic Bias: Words Matter 91 5.3.7 Cosmetic Bias: Pretty Wrapping 91 5.4 Gender Bias in the Classrooms: Student-Teacher Interaction 91 5.5 Trends and Challenges 93 5.5.1 The Boy Crisis 93 5.5.2 The Rebirth of Single-Sex Education 95 5.5.3 Supporting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ) Students 97 5.6 Strategies for Creating Gender-Fair Classrooms 98 Questions and Activities 99 References 99 6 Classrooms for Diversity: Rethinking Curriculum and Pedagogy 101 by Mary Kay Thompson Tetreault 6.1 Feminist Phase Theory 102 6.2 Male-Defined Curriculum 102 6.3 Contribution Curriculum 104 6.4 Bifocal Curriculum 104 6.5 Women's Curriculum 106 6.6 Gender-Balanced Curriculum 109 6.7 Changes in Traditional Ways of Teaching 110 Sample Lessons 113 Language Arts 113 Mathematics and Science 113 Social Studies 115 Summary 116 Questions and Activities 116 References 116 7 Queer Lessons: Sexual and Gender Minorities in Multicultural Education 118 by Cris Mayo 7.1 Sexuality and Gender Identity 119 7.2 LGBTQ Legal Progress, Backlash, and the School Curriculum 120 7.3 Overlapping Histories of Multiculturalism and LGBTQ Movements 122 7.4 Histories of Gay-Inclusive Multiculturalism and Other Curricular Inclusiveness 124 7.5 Challenges to Homophobia and Heterosexism 124 7.6 Challenging Assumptions about LGBTQ People 125 7.7 Why Homophobia and Transphobia? 128 7.8 Dilemmas of Queer Inclusion 129 7.9 Seven Things to Do to Improve Education for Students of All Sexual Orientations and Genders 131 Questions and Activities 132 References 132 Part 4 Race, Language Diversity, and Civic Education 135 8 Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform 137 by James A. Banks 8.1 The Mainstream-Centric Curriculum 137 8.2 Public Sites and Popular History 139 8.3 Efforts to Establish a Multicultural Curriculum 141 8.4 Levels of Integration of Multicultural Content 142 8.4.1 The Contributions Approach 142 8.4.2 The Additive Approach 144 8.4.3 The Transformation Approach 146 8.4.4 The Social Action Approach 148 8.4.5 Mixing and Blending Approaches 150 8.5 Guidelines for Teaching Multicultural Content 153 Summary 154 Questions and Activities 155 References 155 9 Backstage Racism: Implications for Teaching 158 by Leslie H. Picca and Ruth Thompson-Miller 9.1 Context 159 9.2 Methodology 159 9.3 Journals by White Students 160 9.3.1 The Frontstage 161 9.3.2 The Backstage 162 9.4 Journals by Students of Color 164 9.5 Comparing the Journals Written by Whites and Students of Color 168 9.6 Conclusion and Next Actionable Steps 169 Journal Exercise 170 How Do I Do This? 170 Questions and Activities 172 References 172 10 Language Diversity and Schooling 174 by Rachel Snyder and Manka Varghese 10.1 The History of Linguistic Diversity in the United States 175 10.2 Current Linguistic Diversity in the United States 177 10.3 Historical and Legal Overview of Language Policy in the United States 179 10.3.1 Implementation of Federal Policy 179 10.3.2 Language Policy in Recent History 181 10.4 Views on Language Learning and Teaching 183 10.4.1 Language 183 10.4.2 Theories of Second-Language Learning 184 10.5 Programmatic Responses to Linguistic Diversity 185 10.5.1 Instructional Programs 185 10.5.2 The Bilingual Debate and the Research Context 186 10.5.3 Program Types that Contribute to Successful Educational Practice 187 10.6 Instructional Methods and Approaches 188 10.6.1 English as a Second Language Instructional Strategies 188 10.6.2 Instructional Methods for Bilingual Education 189 10.7 Additional Considerations 190 10.7.1 The Lived Reality of Today's Linguistically Diverse Students 190 10.8 Conclusion 191 Questions and Activities 192 Resources 192 Professional Associations 193 Websites 193 References 193 11 Civic Education for Non-Citizen and Citizen Students 198 by James A. Banks 11.1 Multicultural Citizenship Education and Cosmopolitan Human Rights Education 199 11.2 A Framework for Civic Education for Non-Citizens 200 11.3 Human Rights, Cosmopolitanism, and the Education of Non-Citizen Students 201 11.4 Education for Human Rights and Cosmopolitan Citizenship 202 11.5 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Education: Challenges and Opportunities 203 11.6 The Stages of Cultural Identity and Human Rights Cosmopolitan Education 205 11.7 Multicultural Citizenship Education for Citizen Students 208 11.8 Mainstream and Transformative Civic Education 210 Summary 211 Acknowledgments 212 Questions and Activities 212 References 212 Part 5 Exceptionality 215 12 Educational Equality for Students with Disabilities 217 by Sara C. Bicard and William L. Heward 12.1 Identification of Students with Disabilities 218 12.2 Is Disability a Social Construct? 220 12.3 How Many Students with Disabilities are There? 220 12.4 How are Students with Disabilities Classified? 221 12.5 How is Eligibility for Special Education Determined? 222 12.6 Does Classification Affect Instruction? 222 12.7 Brief History of Educational Equality for Students with Disabilities 222 12.8 The Individuals with Disabilities Act: A Legislative Mandate for Educational Equality for Students with Disabilities 224 12.8.1 Major Principles of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 224 12.8.2 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 229 12.8.3 The Americans with Disabilities Act 229 12.8.4 The Elementary and Secondary Education Act 230 12.9 Educational Equality for Students with Disabilities: Progress Made but Challenges Remain 230 12.9.1 Effective Instruction 231 12.9.2 General and Special Education Partnership 232 12.9.3 Early Intervention 233 12.9.4 Transition from School to Adult Life 233 12.9.5 Special Education in a Diverse Society 234 Summary 235 Questions and Activities 236 References 236 13 Culturally Responsive Special Education in Inclusive Schools 240 by Luanna H. Meyer, Hyun-Sook Park, and Saili Kulkarni 13.1 Special Education as Exclusion and Segregation 241 13.2 Strategies to Prevent Misdiagnosis and Disproportionality 243 13.3 The Monoculture of Mainstream Education 244 13.4 Parent Involvement and Working with Families 246 13.5 Causes of Limited Parent Involvement 247 13.6 Strategies for Schools to Increase Parent Involvement 249 13.6.1 Preparation of Professionals for Partnerships with Parents 250 13.6.2 Preparation of Parents for Partnerships with Educators 251 13.7 Culturally Competent Teachers and Inclusive Pedagogies 251 13.8 Preintervention Culturally Responsive Teaching 252 13.9 Culturally Responsive Interventions 254 13.10 Culturally Situated Schooling and Inclusive Pedagogies 255 13.11 Quality Inclusive Schools 255 13.12 Delivery of Special Education in the Context of General Education 256 13.13 Managing Inclusive Classrooms 257 13.14 Diversity and Caring Communities: Outcomes for the Social Good 258 Questions and Activities 259 References 260 Part 6 School Reform and Classroom Assessment 265 14 School Reform and Student Learning: A Multicultural Perspective 267 by Sonia Nieto and Patty Bode 14.1 Defining School Reform with a Multicultural Perspective 268 14.2 Conditions for Systemic School Reform Based on a Multicultural Perspective 269 14.3 School Reform Should Be Antiracist and Antibiased 270 14.4 School Reform Should Reflect an Understanding and Acceptance of All Students as Having Talents and Strengths That Can Enhance Their Education 273 14.5 School Reform Should Be Considered within the Parameters of Critical Pedagogy 275 14.6 What Kind of World Do You Want to Live In? Practicing and studying the Declaration of Human Rights 276 14.7 The People Most Intimately Connected with Teaching and Learning (Teachers, Families, and Students) Need to Be Meaningfully Involved in School Reform 278 14.8 School Reform Needs to Be Based on High Expectations and Rigorous Standards for All Learners 278 14.9 Conclusion 279 Questions and Activities 280 References 280 15 Communities, Families, and Educators Working Together for School Improvement 284 by Cherry A. McGee Banks 15.1 Reasons Why Parent and Family Involvement in Schools is Important 287 15.2 Historical Overview 289 15.3 The Changing Face of the Family 290 15.4 Parents with Special Needs 293 15.5 Single Parents 294 15.6 Low-Income Parents 294 15.7 Teacher Concerns with Parent and Family Involvement 295 15.8 Steps to Increase Parent and Family Involvement 296 15.9 Establish Two-Way Communication Between the School and the Home 297 15.10 Enlist Support from Other Staff Members and Students 298 15.11 Enlist Support from the Community 299 15.12 Develop Learning Resources for Parents to Use at Home 300 15.13 Broaden the Conception of Parent and Community Involvement 301 15.13.1 Parents Working with Their Own Children 301 15.13.2 Professional Support Person for Instruction 302 15.13.3 General Volunteers 302 15.13.4 Decision-Makers 302 Summary 303 Questions and Activities 303 Websites 303 References 304 16 Classroom Assessment and Diversity 306 by Catherine S. Taylor and Susan B. Nolen 16.1 Bias and Sensitivity Issues in Assessment 308 16.2 Lessons Learned from a Bias and Sensitivity Review Panel 310 16.2.1 "Othering" 310 16.2.2 Consistency with Culture 310 16.2.3 Respect for Indigenous Peoples 311 16.2.4 Developing Interpretations 311 16.2.5 Culturally Inappropriate Content 311 16.3 Investigating Potential Bias through Statistical Analyses 312 16.3.1 The Case of Bias Due to Multiple-Choice Format 313 16.4 The Impact of Language Complexity on ELL Students' Performance 314 16.5 Potential Bias in Computer-Based Testing 315 16.6 The Effects of Engagement on Assessment Performance 317 16.7 The Social Context of Assessment 321 16.8 Teacher Assessment Practices 322 Summary 323 Questions and Activities 323 References 324 Appendix: Multicultural Resources 329 Glossary 333 Contributors 339 Index 343

Additional information

GOR011228690
9781119510215
111951021X
Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives by James A. Banks
Used - Very Good
Paperback
John Wiley & Sons Inc
2020-07-09
384
N/A
Book picture is for illustrative purposes only, actual binding, cover or edition may vary.
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