Completely revised and enlarged with six new chapters, the second edition of Neurons and Networks is an introduction not just to neurobiology, but to all of behavioral neuroscience. It is an ideal text for first- or second-year college students with minimal college science exposure.
Neurons and Networks: An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience, Second Edition by John E. Dowling
Harvard University Press is proud to announce the second edition of a widely admired introductory textbook. When first published, Neurons and Networks filled the need for an introductory neuroscience text that is lucid, accessible, authoritative, logically organized, and concise. Avoiding the encyclopedic coverage that makes most neuroscience texts overwhelming, Neurons and Networks focused instead on building the solid foundation of understanding and knowledge required for further study. The new edition retains the features that made the first edition so attractive: consistent emphasis on results and concepts that have stood the test of time; abundant high-quality illustrations; exceptionally clear explanations of technical terms. Completely revised and enlarged with six new chapters, the second edition of Neurons and Networks is an introduction not just to neurobiology, but to all of behavioral neuroscience. It is an ideal text for first- or second-year college students with minimal college science exposure. It is also an invaluable resource for students in biology, psychology, anthropology, and computer science who seek an accessible guide to a discipline that will be a critically important area of research in the twenty-first century.
[Neurons and Networks] covers the classic material of neurobiology. It has evolved from years of lectures given to undergraduates at Harvard University by the renowned retinal physiologist John Dowling...Overall, this is a sober and scholarly volume that strikes me, with its terse, no-frills style and reliance on the history of ideas, as very Harvard. Although intended as an introduction to basic neurobiology, it is a satisfying book at several levels. -- Michael R. Hanley Nature [Neurons and Networks] provides an up-to-date introduction to the whole field of neuroscience...It falls into two parts, each consisting of nine chapters: neurons (cellular neuroscience) and networks (integrative neuroscience). Dowling uses the foundations in the cell biology, biophysics and biochemistry of neurons laid in the first part to develop an account of the system properties of networks such as memory, visual processing and motor control. -- C. U. M. Smith Times Higher Education Supplement
About John E. Dowling
John E. Dowling is Gordon and Llura Gund Professor of Neurosciences at Harvard University, and Professor of Ophthalmology (Neuroscience) at Harvard Medical School. A member of the National Academy of Sciences, The American Philosophical Society, and The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, he also has won The Helen Keller Prize for Vision Research, the Paul Kayser International Eye Research Award of the International Society for Eye Research, and the Glenn A. Fry Medal in Physiological Optics.
Table of Contents
Preface PART ONE NEURONS: CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE 1 Probing the Brain Anatomical Approaches: Visualizing Neurons Observing Individual Nerve Cells Physiological Approaches: Recording Electrical Activity EEGs and Other Field Potentials Single-Cell Recordings Molecular Biological Approaches: Mapping Molecules Recombinant DNA Technology Monoclonal Antibodies and Genetic Mutants Summary Further Reading 2 Cells and Synapses Neurons and Glia Neuronal Structure Golgi Type I Neurons Axonal Transport The Myelin Sheath Golgi Type II Neurons Synapses Chemical Synapses Neuromuscular and Sensory Cell Junctions Electrical Synapses Summary Further Reading 3 Membranes and the Resting Potential Properties of Neural Potentials Membranes: Their Structure and Electrical Properties Freeze-Fracture Studies Reconstituted Membranes Membrane Channels Measuring Membrane Resistance and Capacitance The Equivalent Circuit of Membranes Resting Potentials A Simpli fied Model The Nernst Equation and Equilibrium Potentials The Goldman Equation and the Determination of Resting Potentials Variations and Exceptions How Many Ions Cross the Membrane? Maintenance of Ion Concentrations: Ion Pumps Summary Further Reading 4 Action Potentials and Their Propagation The Generation of Action Potentials Voltage-Dependent Permeability Changes Voltage-Clamp Analysis Effects of Drugs on Na + and K + Currents The Na + Channel Single-Channel Records Metabolic Considerations Ion Conductances during the Action Potential Ca 2 + Channels and Other Voltage-Sensitive Channels The Propagation of Action Potentials Current Spread Impulse Propagation Speed of Propagation Saltatory Conduction Summary Further Reading 5 Synaptic Potentials Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses The Axon Hillock and the Generation of Action Potentials Analyzing Synaptic Potentials Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials Single-Channel Recordings Presynaptic Inhibition Electrical Synapses The Neuromuscular Junction Summary Further Reading 6 The Chemistry of Synaptic Transmission Mechanisms of Synaptic Transmission Timing Drugs and Synaptic Transmission Myasthenia Gravis: A Neuromuscular Disease Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators Neuromodulation Identifying Transmitters and Modulators Classes of Neuroactive Substances Acetylcholine Amino Acids Monoamines Neuropeptides Summary Further Reading 7 Receptors and Receptor Potentials Mechanoreceptors Somatosensory Receptors Adaptation Hair Cells and Audition Second-Messenger Receptors Olfactory Receptors Vertebrate Photoreceptors Regulation of the Na + Channels Photoreceptor Adaptation Summary Further Reading 8 Membrane Channels and Receptor Proteins Ligand Gating: The Acetylcholine Channel Voltage Sensitivity: Shaker Flies and Potassium Channels Ion Selectivity Visual Pigments and Receptor Proteins Discovery of the Visual Pigments Vision and Vitamin A The Action of Light and Visual Pigment Intermediates Color Vision Summary Further Reading PART TWO NETWORKS: SYSTEMS NEUROSCIENCE 9 Invertebrate Nervous Systems Nervous System Design Cellular Organization Ganglion Organization Command Neurons Mechanisms Underlying Behavior Neuronal Properties: Inking in Aplysia Neural Circuitry: Lateral Inhibition in the Limulus Eye Summary Further Reading 10 Control of Rhythmic Motor Behavior The Heartbeat in the Leech Swimming in Tritonia Defensive Withdrawal Modulation of Neural Circuits The Pyloric Central Pattern Generator Summary Further Reading 11 Synaptic Plasticity: An Invertebrate Model of Memory and Learning Early Theories Reverberating Circuits Aggregate Field Theory The Gill-Withdrawal Re flex in Aplysia Habituation The Neural Circuitry of the Re flex Sensitization Long-Term Habituation and Sensitization A Summary Scheme of Sensitization Classical Conditioning Summary Further Reading 12 The Vertebrate Brain The Central Nervous System The Spinal Cord Spinal Cord Re flexes Ascending and Descending Pathways The Brain Medulla and Pons Hypothalamus Cerebellum Thalamus Basal Ganglia Brain Ventricles Cerebral Cortex Summary Further Reading 13 Motor Control in Vertebrates The Autonomic Nervous System Ganglion Organization Control of the Heartbeat Voluntary Movement Locomotion Sensory Feedback and Locomotion Feedback and Motor Control: An Overall Scheme The Initiation of Movements Motor Programs Summary Further Reading 14 Retinal Processing of Visual Information The Retina Cellular Organization The Initial Stages of Visual Processing The Signi ficance of Retinal Processing Cellular Mechanisms Synapses in the Retina Neuronal Responses Receptive Field Organization Functional Organization of the Retina Modulation of Retinal Synapses Summary Further Reading 15 Cortical Processing of Visual Information The Lateral Geniculate Nucleus The Visual Cortex Simple Cells Complex Cells The Signi ficance of Cortical Receptive Fields The Formation of Cortical Receptive Fields Binocular Interaction and Depth Perception Summary Further Reading 16 The Architecture of the Visual Cortex Lateral Geniculate Architecture The Visual Cortex: Area V1 Columnar Organization Orientation Columns Hypercolumns Color Processing Cortical Plasticity: The Effects of Visual Deprivation Responses of Cells in Newborn Animals Visual Deprivation The Critical Period Strabismus Pattern Deprivation Mechanisms Underlying Deprivation Changes Summary Further Reading 17 The Development of the Brain The Neural Plate, Tube, and Crest The Proliferation and Migration of Neural Cells The Differentiation of Neurons Cell Lineage in the Nematode Cell Interactions in the Fruit fly Eye Axon Projection and Synapse Formation Cell Adhesion Experiments and Molecules The Chemoaf finity Theory Revisited Axonal Guidance Neuronal and Synapse Maturation Trophic Substances and Nerve Growth Factor Summary Further Reading PART THREE BRAIN TO MIND: COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE 18 Higher Levels of Cortical Function Area V2 and Higher Visual Areas Face Recognition Visual Processing Visual Perception Cortical Plasticity Modulation of Receptive Field Properties Modi fiability of Sensory and Motor Maps Summary Further Reading 19 Language and the Human Brain Language Areas Language Acquisition Brain Lateralization Left Brain -Right Brain Dichotomies Exploring the Human Brain Imaging Brain Function Summary Further Reading 20 Learning and Memory Temporal Lobe Stimulation and Memories Consolidating Memories: The Hippocampus and Medial Temporal Lobes Memory Classi fication Storage of Declarative Memories The Hippocampus and LTP Short-Term Memory Working Memory Summary Further Reading 21 Emotions and Rationality Origins of Emotions and Feelings Hypothalamus Stress Amygdala Orbitofrontal Cortex Prefrontal Lobotomy Summary Further Reading 22 Reinforcing Behaviors, Homeostasis Regulation, and Motivation Reinforcement: The Nucleus Accumbens Addicting Drugs Temperature Regulation Thirst and Drinking Hypovolemic Thirst Osmotic Thirst Hunger and Eating Ventromedial Hypothalamus and Satiety Lateral Hypothalamus and Hunger Signals Mediating Hunger and Satiety Sexual Behavior Summary Further Reading 23 Sleep, Clocks, and Consciousness Sleep The Electroencephalogram and Sleep Stages of Sleep Dreaming Dream Content Control of Arousal and Sleep The Role of Sleep Circadian Clocks Consciousness Summary Further Reading Appendix. Electrical Charge and Circuits Credits Index
Neurons and Networks: An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience, Second Edition by John E. Dowling
John E. Dowling
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