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Investment Banking By Joshua Rosenbaum

Investment Banking by Joshua Rosenbaum

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Investment Banking Summary

Investment Banking: Valuation, LBOs, M&A, and IPOs (Includes Valuation Models + Online Course) by Joshua Rosenbaum

A timely update to the global bestselling book on investment banking and valuation - this new edition reflects valuable contributions from Nasdaq and the global law firm Latham & Watkins LLP plus access to the online valuation models and course. In the constantly evolving world of finance, a solid technical foundation is an essential tool for success. Due to the fast-paced nature of this world, however, no one was able to take the time to properly codify its lifeblood--namely, valuation and dealmaking. Rosenbaum and Pearl originally responded to this need in 2009 by writing the first edition of the book that they wish had existed when they were trying to break into Wall Street. Investment Banking: Valuation, LBOs, M&A, and IPOs, 3rd Edition is a highly accessible and authoritative book written by investment bankers that explains how to perform the valuation work and financial analysis at the core of Wall Street - comparable companies, precedent transactions, DCF, LBO, M&A analysis...and now IPO analytics and valuation. Using a step-by-step, how-to approach for each methodology, the authors build a chronological knowledge base and define key terms, financial concepts, and processes throughout the book. The genesis for the original book stemmed from the authors' personal experiences as students interviewing for investment banking positions. As they both independently went through the rigorous process, they realized that their classroom experiences were a step removed from how valuation and financial analysis were performed in real-world situations. Consequently, they created this book to provide a leg up to those individuals seeking or beginning careers on Wall Street - from students at undergraduate universities and graduate schools to "career changers" looking to break into finance. Now, over 10 years after the release of the first edition, the book is more relevant and topical than ever. It is used in over 200 universities globally and has become a go-to resource for investment banks, private equity, investment firms, and corporations undertaking M&A transactions, LBOs, IPOs, restructurings, and investment decisions. While the fundamentals haven't changed, the environment must adapt to changing market developments and conditions. As a result, Rosenbaum and Pearl have updated their widely adopted book accordingly, turning the latest edition of Investment Banking: Valuation, LBOs, M&A, and IPOs into a unique and comprehensive training package, which includes: Two new chapters covering IPOs plus insightful contributions from Nasdaq, the leading U.S. exchange and technology provider for IPOs and new listings, and global law firm Latham & Watkins LLP Access to six downloadable valuation model templates, including Comparable Companies Analysis, Precedent Transactions Analysis, Discounted Cash Flow Analysis, Leveraged Buyout Analysis, and M&A models Six-month access to online Wiley Investment Banking Valuation Course featuring bite-sized lessons, over five hours of video lectures, 100+ practice questions, and other investment banking study tools Launch your career on Wall Street and hone your financial expertise with Rosenbaum and Pearl's real-world knowledge and forward-looking guidance in the latest edition of Investment Banking: Valuation, LBOs, M&A, and IPOs.

About Joshua Rosenbaum

JOSHUA ROSENBAUM is a Managing Director and Head of the Industrials & Diversified Services Group at RBC Capital Markets. He originates, structures, and advises on M&A, corporate finance, and capital markets transactions. Previously, he worked at UBS Investment Bank and the International Finance Corporation, the direct investment division of the World Bank. He received his AB from Harvard and his MBA with Baker Scholar honors from Harvard Business School. JOSHUA PEARL has served as a Managing Director at Brahman Capital, a long/short equity asset manager. He focuses on public equity investments and special situations utilizing a fundamentals-based approach. Previously, he structured high yield financings, leveraged buyouts, and restructurings as a Director at UBS Investment Bank. Prior to UBS, he worked at Moelis & Company and Deutsche Bank. He received his BS in Business from Indiana University's Kelley School of Business.

Table of Contents

Additional Resources xv About the Authors xvii Foreword xxi Acknowledgments xxiii Disclaimer xxxi Introduction 1 Structure of the Book 3 Part One: Valuation (Chapters 1-3) 3 Part Two: Leveraged Buyouts (Chapters 4 & 5) 5 Part Three: Mergers & Acquisitions (Chapters 6 & 7) 6 Part Four: Initial Public Offerings (Chapters 8 & 9) 8 ValueCo Summary Financial Information 9 Part One Valuation 11 Chapter 1 Comparable Companies Analysis 13 Summary of Comparable Companies Analysis Steps 14 Step I. Select the Universe of Comparable Companies 17 Study the Target 17 Identify Key Characteristics of the Target for Comparison Purposes 18 Screen for Comparable Companies 22 Step II. Locate The Necessary Financial Information 23 SEC Filings: 10-K, 10-Q, 8-K, and Proxy Statement 24 Equity Research 25 Press Releases and News Runs 26 Financial Information Services 26 Summary of Financial Data Primary Sources 27 Step III. Spread Key Statistics, Ratios, and Trading Multiples 28 Calculation of Key Financial Statistics and Ratios 28 Supplemental Financial Concepts and Calculations 42 Calculation of Key Trading Multiples 47 Step IV. Benchmark the Comparable Companies 50 Benchmark the Financial Statistics and Ratios 50 Benchmark the Trading Multiples 50 Step V. Determine Valuation 51 Valuation Implied by EV/EBITDA 52 Valuation Implied by P/E 52 Key Pros and Cons 54 Illustrative Comparable Companies Analysis for ValueCo 55 Step I. Select the Universe of Comparable Companies 55 Step II. Locate the Necessary Financial Information 57 Step III. Spread Key Statistics, Ratios, and Trading Multiples 57 Step IV. Benchmark the Comparable Companies 69 Step V. Determine Valuation 74 Chapter 2 Precedent Transactions Analysis 75 Summary of Precedent Transactions Analysis Steps 76 Step I. Select the Universe of Comparable Acquisitions 79 Screen for Comparable Acquisitions 79 Examine Other Considerations 80 Step II. Locate the Necessary Deal-Related and Financial Information 82 Public Targets 82 Private Targets 85 Summary of Primary SEC Filings in M&A Transactions 86 Step III. Spread Key Statistics, Ratios, and Transaction Multiples 88 Calculation of Key Financial Statistics and Ratios 88 Calculation of Key Transaction Multiples 94 Step IV. Benchmark the Comparable Acquisitions 98 Step V. Determine Valuation 98 Key Pros and Cons 99 Illustrative Precedent Transaction Analysis for ValueCo 100 Step I. Select the Universe of Comparable Acquisitions 100 Step II. Locate the Necessary Deal-Related and Financial Information 101 Step III. Spread Key Statistics, Ratios, and Transaction Multiples 103 Step IV. Benchmark the Comparable Acquisitions 111 Step V. Determine Valuation 113 Chapter 3 Discounted Cash Flow Analysis 115 Summary of Discounted Cash Flow Analysis Steps 116 Step I. Study the Target and Determine Key Performance Drivers 120 Study the Target 120 Determine Key Performance Drivers 120 Step II. Project Free Cash Flow 121 Considerations for Projecting Free Cash Flow 121 Projection of Sales, EBITDA, and EBIT 123 Projection of Free Cash Flow 125 Step III. Calculate Weighted Average Cost of Capital 131 Step III(a): Determine Target Capital Structure 132 Step III(b): Estimate Cost of Debt (rd) 133 Step III(c): Estimate Cost of Equity (re) 134 Step III(d): Calculate WACC 138 Step IV. Determine Terminal Value 138 Exit Multiple Method 139 Perpetuity Growth Method 139 Step V. Calculate Present Value and Determine Valuation 141 Calculate Present Value 141 Determine Valuation 143 Perform Sensitivity Analysis 145 Key Pros and Cons 146 Illustrative Discounted Cash Flow Analysis for ValueCo 147 Step I. Study the Target and Determine Key Performance Drivers 147 Step II. Project Free Cash Flow 147 Projection of Sales, EBITDA, and EBIT 149 Step III. Calculate Weighted Average Cost of Capital 154 Step IV. Determine Terminal Value 159 Step V. Calculate Present Value and Determine Valuation 161 Part Two Leveraged Buyouts 167 Chapter 4 Leveraged Buyouts 169 Key Participants 171 Financial Sponsors 171 Investment Banks 172 Bank and Institutional Lenders 174 Bond Investors 175 Private Credit Funds 176 Target Management 176 Characteristics of a Strong LBO Candidate 177 Strong Cash Flow Generation 178 Leading and Defensible Market Positions 178 Growth Opportunities 178 Efficiency Enhancement Opportunities 179 Low Capex Requirements 179 Strong Asset Base 180 Proven Management Team 180 Economics of LBOs 181 Returns Analysis-Internal Rate of Return 181 Returns Analysis-Cash Return 182 How LBOs Generate Returns 182 How Leverage Is Used to Enhance Returns 184 Primary Exit/Monetization Strategies 187 Sale of Business 187 Initial Public Offering 188 Dividends / Dividend Recapitalization 188 Below Par Debt Repurchase 188 LBO Financing: Structure 189 LBO Financing: Primary Sources 192 Secured Debt 192 High Yield Bonds 196 Mezzanine Debt 198 Equity Contribution 199 LBO Financing: Selected Key Terms 202 Security 202 Seniority 202 Maturity 203 Coupon 204 Call Protection 205 Covenants 206 Term Sheets 209 LBO Financing: Determining Financing Structure 212 Chapter 5 LBO Analysis 217 Financing Structure 217 Valuation 218 Step I. Locate and Analyze the Necessary Information 220 Step II. Build the Pre-LBO Model 220 Step II(a): Build Historical and Projected Income Statement through EBIT 221 Step II(b): Input Opening Balance Sheet and Project Balance Sheet Items 224 Step II(c): Build Cash Flow Statement through Investing Activities 226 Operating Activities 226 Step III. Input Transaction Structure 229 Step III(a): Enter Purchase Price Assumptions 229 Step III(b): Enter Financing Structure into Sources and Uses 231 Step III(c): Link Sources and Uses to Balance Sheet Adjustments Columns 232 Uses of Funds Links 235 Step IV. Complete the Post-LBO Model 238 Step IV(a): Build Debt Schedule 238 Step IV(b): Complete Pro Forma Income Statement from EBIT to Net Income 247 Step IV(c): Complete Pro Forma Balance Sheet 250 Step IV(d): Complete Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement 252 Step V. Perform LBO Analysis 254 Step V(a): Analyze Financing Structure 254 Step V(b): Perform Returns Analysis 256 Step V(c): Determine Valuation 260 Step V(d): Create Transaction Summary Page 261 Illustrative LBO Analysis for ValueCo 262 Part Three Mergers & Acquisitions 273 Chapter 6 Sell-Side M&A 275 Auctions 276 Auction Structure 279 Organization and Preparation 279 Identify Seller Objectives and Determine Appropriate Sale Process 279 Perform Sell-Side Advisor Due Diligence and Preliminary Valuation Analysis 281 Select Buyer Universe 281 Prepare Marketing Materials 282 Prepare Confidentiality Agreement 285 First Round 286 Contact Prospective Buyers 286 Negotiate and Execute Confidentiality Agreement with Interested Parties 286 Distribute Confidential Information Memorandum and Initial Bid Procedures Letter 287 Prepare Management Presentation 288 Set Up Data Room 289 Prepare Stapled Financing Package (if applicable) 291 Receive Initial Bids and Select Buyers to Proceed to Second Round 291 Second Round 293 Conduct Management Presentations 293 Facilitate Site Visits 294 Provide Data Room Access and Respond to Diligence Requests 294 Distribute Final Bid Procedures Letter and Draft Definitive Agreement 295 Receive Final Bids 296 Negotiations 300 Evaluate Final Bids 300 Negotiate with Preferred Buyer(s) 300 Select Winning Bidder 300 Render Fairness Opinion (if required) 301 Receive Board/Owner Approval and Execute Definitive Agreement 301 Closing 302 Obtain Necessary Approvals 302 Shareholder Approval 303 Financing and Closing 305 Negotiated Sale 306 Chapter 7 Buy-Side M&A 309 Buyer Motivation 310 Synergies 311 Cost Synergies 312 Revenue Synergies 312 Acquisition Strategies 313 Horizontal Integration 313 Vertical Integration 313 Conglomeration 314 Form of Financing 315 Cash on Hand 316 Debt Financing 316 Equity Financing 317 Debt vs. Equity Financing Summary-Acquirer Perspective 318 Deal Structure 318 Stock Sale 318 Asset Sale 321 Stock Sales Treated as Asset Sales for Tax Purposes 324 Buy-Side Valuation 327 Football Field 327 Analysis at Various Prices 330 Contribution Analysis 331 Merger Consequences Analysis 333 Purchase Price Assumptions 333 Balance Sheet Effects 338 Accretion/(Dilution) Analysis 343 Acquisition Scenarios-I) 50% Stock/50% Cash; II) 100% Cash; and III) 100% Stock 346 Illustrative Merger Consequences Analysis for the BuyerCo/ValueCo Transaction 351 Part Four Initial Public Offerings 373 Chapter 8 Initial Public Offerings 375 Why Do Companies Go Public? 376 Characteristics of a Strong IPO Candidate 378 Attractive Industry 378 Strong Competitive Position 378 Growth Opportunities 379 Moat & Barriers to Entry 380 Healthy Financial Profile 380 Disruptive & Differentiated Solutions 381 Favorable Risk Profile 381 Proven Management Team 382 Key Participants 383 Investment Banks 383 Company Management 386 Current Owners/Investors 387 IPO Investors 387 Lawyers 388 Accountants 388 Exchange Partner 389 IPO Advisors 390 Vendors 390 Selected Key Terms 391 Offering Size 392 Primary/Secondary 393 Overallotment Option, a.k.a. "Greenshoe" 394 Syndicate Structure 395 Lock-up Provision 396 Listing Exchange 396 Gross Spread 397 Dual-Track Process 398 Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) 401 Direct Listings 403 Post-IPO Equity Offerings 406 IPO Considerations 407 Nasdaq Appendix 409 Chapter 9 The IPO Process 413 Organization and Preparation 415 Select IPO Team, Exchange Partner and Assign Responsibilities 415 Manage Corporate Housekeeping 418 C Corp vs. Up-C Structure 423 Determine IPO Timing 425 Determine Offering Structure and Preliminary IPO Valuation 426 Host Organizational Meeting 429` Due Diligence, Drafting, and Filing 430 Perform Underwriter Due Diligence 430 Draft and File the Registration Statement 431 Prepare Other Key Transaction and Corporate Governance Documents 436 Coordinate with Equity Research 437 Respond to SEC Comments and File Amended Registration Statement 437 Marketing and Roadshow 438 Prepare Marketing Materials 438 Salesforce Teach-in 439 Conduct Roadshow 440 Build Order Book 443 Pricing and Allocation 445 Price the Offering 445 Allocate Shares to Investors 447 Closing 447 Afterword 449 Bibliography and Recommended Reading 451 Index 457

Additional information

Investment Banking: Valuation, LBOs, M&A, and IPOs (Includes Valuation Models + Online Course) by Joshua Rosenbaum
John Wiley & Sons Inc
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