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Foundations of Structural Geology By Professor R. G. Park

Foundations of Structural Geology

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A thorough revision of this textbook, providing a clear, authoritative and complete introduction to modern structural geology.
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Foundations of Structural Geology Summary

Foundations of Structural Geology by Professor R. G. Park

In the Preface to the first edition of this book, nitions and explanations of a number of import- published in 1983, I explained my reasons for ant stratigraphic and structural concepts that writing the book as follows. need to be understood in the early stages of 'There are already a number of excellent books learning structural geology from geological covering the various aspects of Structural Geo- maps. It must be stressed, however, that geolo- logy. Among these are works by Hobbs, Means gical map interpretation must be carried out as a and Williams, Jaeger and Cook, Price, Ramsay, complement to any theoretical treatment of the and Turner and Weiss, all of which I have used subject, in order to appreciate structure in three extensively in preparing this book and have listed dimensions. therein as further reading. However, these text- I have also made numerous corrections and improvements to the text and also to the illus- books are rather advanced for many students commencing the study of geology, and for many trations, many of which have been replaced. In years I have been aware of the lack of a suitable doing this, I have incorporated many helpful elementary book which I could recommend to suggestions from colleagues and reviewers. In beginners.

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Table of Contents

1: Morphology-how to describe and classify structures.- 1 Faults and fractures.- 1.1 Rock fractures.- 1.2 Fault geometry and nomenclature.- 1.3 Rocks produced by faulting (fault rocks).- 1.4 Features associated with fault planes.- 1.5 Fault associations.- 1.6 Joints.- 2 Folds.- 2.1 Meaning and significance of folds.- 2.2 Basic fold geometry and nomenclature.- 2.3 Fold orientation.- 2.4 Classification of folds.- 2.5 Description of fold systems.- 2.6 Folds in three dimensions.- 2.7 Relationship between faults, folds and ductile shears.- 3 Foliation, lineation and fabric.- 3.1 Foliation.- 3.2 Lineation.- 3.3 Boudinage.- 3.4 Fabric.- 4 Igneous bodies.- 4.1 The significance of igneous bodies in structural geology.- 4.2 Structures found within igneous bodies.- 4.3 Structural classification of igneous bodies.- 2: Deformation-how structures are formed.- 5 Stress.- 5.1 Force and stress.- 5.2 Normal stress and shear stress.- 5.3 Stress at a 'point'-the stress components.- 5.4 Principal stresses and the stress axial cross.- 5.5 Stresses acting on a given plane.- 5.6 Hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses.- 5.7 Stress fields and stress trajectories.- 6 Strain.- 6.1 Nature of strain.- 6.2 Measurement of strain.- 6.3 Principal strain axes and the strain ellipsoid.- 6.4 Pure shear and simple shear (distortion and rotation).- 6.5 Special types of homogeneous strain.- 6.6 Volume change during deformation.- 6.7 Graphical representation of homogeneous strain.- 6.8 Progressive deformation and finite strain.- 6.9 Relationship between stress and strain.- 7 Stress and strain in materials.- 7.1 Ideal elastic and viscous strain.- 7.2 Viscoelastic, elastoviscous and plastic behaviour.- 7.3 Brittle and ductile behaviour.- 7.4 The effects of variation in stress.- 7.5 Interrelationship of stress, strain and time.- 7.6 The effect of confining pressure.- 7.7 The effect of temperature.- 7.8 The effect of pore-fluid pressure.- 7.9 The effect of strain-rate.- 7.10 Summary: physical controls on strain behaviour.- 7.11 Mechanisms of rock deformation.- 8 Determination of strain in rocks.- 8.1 Finding the principal strain axes.- 8.2 Use of initially spherical objects.- 8.3 Use of deformed conglomerates.- 8.4 Use of bilaterally symmetrical fossils.- 8.5 Strain determination in three dimensions.- 8.6 Use of fold sets.- 8.7 Two-dimensional strain from 'balanced sections'.- 8.8 Bulk homogeneous strain.- 8.9 Superimposition of strains.- 9 Faulting.- 9.1 Shear stress and brittle failure.- 9.2 Fault orientation in relation to stress and strain axes.- 9.3 Faulting and earthquakes.- 9.4 Thrust systems.- 9.5 Extensional fault systems.- 9.6 Strike-slip fault systems.- 9.7 Shear zones.- 10 Folding.- 10.1 Folding mechanisms and fold geometry.- 10.2 Classification of folds based on layer shape.- 10.3 Buckling.- 10.4 Oblique shear or flow folding.- 10.5 Kinking and formation of chevron folds.- 10.6 Conditions controlling the fold mechanism.- 11 Emplacement of igneous intrusions.- 11.1 Dilational emplacement of dykes and sills.- 11.2 Emplacement of cone-sheets and radial dykes.- 11.3 Mode of emplacement of large intrusions.- 12 Gravity-controlled structures.- 12.1 The effect of topographic relief.- 12.2 Gravity sliding of sheets or nappes.- 12.3 Salt domes and diapirs.- 12.4 Mantled gneiss domes.- 12.5 Large-scale structures.- 3: Geotectonics-major Earth structure.- 13 Major Earth structure.- 13.1 Continents and oceans.- 13.2 Mountain ranges, ocean ridges and trenches.- 13.3 Present-day tectonic activity.- 13.4 Stable and unstable tectonic zones.- 14 Plate tectonics.- 14.1 Historical context.- 14.2 The concept of lithosphere plates.- 14.3 Nature of plate boundaries.- 14.4 Geometry of plate motion.- 14.5 Driving mechanism for plate motion.- 15 Geological structure and plate tectonics.- 15.1 Recognition of inactive plate boundaries.- 15.2 Structure of constructive boundaries.- 15.3 Structure of conservative boundaries.- 15.4 Structure of subduction zones.- 15.5 Continental collision zones.- 15.6 The Caledonian orogenic belt in Britain.- 15.7 Orogenies in the Precambrian.

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Foundations of Structural Geology by Professor R. G. Park
Professor R. G. Park
Used - Very Good
Kluwer Academic Publishers Group
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