Water management is taking on new directions. Formerly, water resources development and management was focused almost exclusively on water supply and flood control. Today, the issues of protecting the environment, ensuring safe drinking water, and providing recreational experiences compete for the public's attention and funds. A knowledge of hydrologic principles is a prerequisite for dealing with such issues and the fourth edition of Introduction to Hydrology has been designed to meet the contemporary needs of water scientists and engineers.
Known for its clearly organized format, this text is accessible to both students and practitioners concerned with the development, management, and protection of water resources. Featuring solved examples, chapters relating science to public policy, and reviews of current models, this book is not only a comprehensive look at the field of hydrology, but an exploration of current issues affecting the discipline today.
Introduction to Hydrology has been updated throughout with new computer approaches and coverage of the use of spreadsheets woven into problem-solving techniques when appropriate. Two new features have been added to each chapter to enhance student comprehension: an introductory statement of contents and a conclusion summing up key points. This textbook is an excellent choice for both an introductory course on hydrology and an advanced course featuring hydrologic modeling.
I. THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE. 1. Introduction.
Hydrology Defined. A Brief History. The Hydrologic Cycle. The Hydrologic Budget. Hydrologic Models. Hydrologic Data. Common Units of Measurement. Application of Hydrology to Environmental Problems.2. Precipitation.
Water Vapor. Precipitation. Distribution of the Precipitation Input. Point Precipitation. Areal Precipitation. Probable Maximum Precipitation. Gross and Net Precipitation.3. Interception and Depression Storage.
Interception. Throughfall. Depression Storage.4. Infiltration.
Measuring Infiltration. Calculation of Infiltration. Horton's Infiltration Model. Green-AMPT Model. Huggins-Monke Model. Holtan Model. Recovery of Infiltration Capacity. Temporal and Spatial Variability of Infiltration Capacity. SCS Runoff Curve Number Procedure Index5. Evaporation and Transportation.
Evaporation. Estimating Evaporation. Evaporation Control. Transpiration. Transpiration Control. Evapotranspiration. Estimating Evapotranspiration.6. Streamflow.
Drainage Basin Effects. The Hydrograph. Units of Measurement for Streamflow. Measuring and Recording Streamflow. Measurements of Depth and Cross-Sectional Area. Measurement of Velocity. Relating Point Velocity to Cross-Sectional Flow Velocity. The Slope-Area Method for Determining Discharge
II. HYDROLOGIC MEASUREMENTS AND MONITORING. 7. Hydrologic Data Sources.
General Climatological Data. Precipitation Data. Streamflow Data. Evaporation and Transpiration Data.8. Instrumentation.
Introduction. Hydrologic Instruments. Telemetry Systems. Remote Sensing9. Monitoring Networks.
The Purpose of Monitoring. Special Considerations. Use of Computers in Monitoring. Hydrological-Meteorlogical Networks.
III. SURFACE WATER HYDROLOGY. 10. Runoff and the Catchment.
Catchments, Watersheds, and Drainage Basins. Basin Characteristics Affecting Runoff. Rudimentary Precipitation-Runoff Relationships. Streamflow Frequency Analysis. Streamflow Forecasting,11. Hydrographs.
Streamflow Hydrographs. Factors Affecting Hydrograph Shape. Hydrograph Components. Base Flow Separation. Hydrograph Time Relationships. Time of Concentration. Basin Lag Time.12. Unit Hydrographs.
Unit Hydrograph Definition. Derivation of Unit Hydrographs from Streamflow Data. Unit Hydrograph Applications by Lagging Methods. S-Hydrograph Method. The Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph. Synthetic Unit Hydrographs13. Hydrograph Routing.
Hydrologic River Routing. Hydrologic Reservoir Routing. Hydraulic River Routing.14. Snow Hydrology.
Introduction. Snow Accumulation and Runoff. Snow Measurements and Surveys. Point and Areal Snow Characteristics. The Snowmelt Process. Snowmelt Runoff Determinations.15. Urban and Small Watershed Hydrology.
Introduction. Peak Flow Formulas for Urban Watersheds. Peak Flow Formulas for Small Rural Watersheds. Runoff Effects of Urbanization.16. Hydrologic Design.
Hydrologic Design Procedures. Data for Hydrologic Design. Hydrologic Design-Frequency Criteria. Design Storms. Critical Event Methods. Airport Drainage Design. Design of Urban Storm Drain Systems. Floodplain Analysis
IV. GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY. 17. Groundwater, Soils, and Geology.
Introduction. Groundwater Flow--General Properties. Subsurface Distribution of Water. Geologic Considerations. Fluctuations in Ground Water Level. Groundwater-Surface Water Relations.18. Mechanics of Flow.
Hydrostatics. Groundwater Flow. Darcy's Law. Permeability. Velocity Potential. Hydrodynamic Equations. Flowlines and Equipotential Lines. Boundary Conditions. Flow Nets. Variable Hydraulic Conductivity. Anisotropy. Dupuit's Theory19. Wells and Collection Devices.
Flow to Wells. Steady Unconfined Radial Flow Toward a Well. Steady Confined Radial Flow Toward a Well. Well in A Uniform Flow Field. Well Fields. The Method of Images. Unsteady Flow. Leaky Aquifers. Partially Penetrating Wells. Flow to an Infiltration Gallery. Saltwater Intrusion. Groundwater Basin Development.20. Modeling Regional Groundwater Systems.
Regional Groundwater Models. Finite-Difference Methods. Finite-Element Methods. Model Applications. Groundwater Quality Models
V. HYDROLOGIC MODELING. 21. Introduction to Hydrologic Modeling.
Hydrologic Simulation. Groundwater Simulation. Hydrologic Simulation Protocol. Corps of Engineers Simulation Models.22. Synthetic Streamflows.
Synthetic Hydrology.23. Continuous Simulation Models.
Continuous Streamflow Simulation Models. Continuous Simulation Model Studies24. Single-Event Simulation Models.
Storm Event Simulation. Federal Agency Single-Event Models. Storm Surge Modeling.25. Urban Runoff Simulation Models.
Urban Stormwater System Models. Urban Runoff Models Compared. Vendor-Developed Urban Stormwater Software. PART VI: STATISTICAL METHODS.26. Probability and Statistics.
Random Variables and Statistical Analysis. Concepts of Probability. Probability Distributions. Moments of Distributions. Distribution Characteristics. Types of Probability Distribution Functions. Continuous Probability Distribution Functions. Bivariate Linear Regression and Correlation. Fitting Regression Equations. Regression and Correlation Applications.27. Frequency Analysis.
Frequency Analysis. Graphical Frequency Analysis. Frequency Analysis Using Frequency Factors. Regional Frequency Analysis. Reliability of Frequency Studies Frequency Analysis of Partial Duration Series. Flow Duration AnalysisAppendices. Index.