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Accessing the WAN By Bob Vachon

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Accessing the WAN Summary

Accessing the WAN: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide by Bob Vachon

Each new purchase of an Exploration Companion guide comes with an exclusive coupon code that can be used to Save 65% on these two additional study resources:

1. CCNA ICND2 640-822 Official Cert Guide, Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test (

2. Accessing the WAN Companion Guide eBook (

Accessing the WAN, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Accessing the WAN course in the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum version 4. This course discusses the WAN technologies and network services required by converged applications in enterprise networks. The Companion Guide, written and edited by Networking Academy instructors, is designed as a portable desk reference to use anytime, anywhere. The book's features reinforce the material in the course to help you focus on important concepts and organize your study time for exams.

New and improved features help you study and succeed in this course:

  • Chapter objectives: Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter.
  • Key terms: Refer to the updated lists of networking vocabulary introduced and turn to the highlighted terms in context in each chapter.
  • Glossary: Consult the all-new comprehensive glossary with more than 250 terms.
  • Check Your Understanding questions and answer key: Evaluate your readiness with the updated end-of-chapter questions that match the style of questions you see on the online course quizzes. The answer key explains each answer.
  • Challenge questions and activities: Strive to ace more challenging review questions and activities designed to prepare you for the complex styles of questions you might see on the CCNA exam. The answer key explains each answer.

Bob Vachon is the coordinator of the Computer Systems Technology program and teaches networking infrastructure courses at Cambrian College in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Bob has worked and taught in the computer networking and information technology field for 25 years and is a scholar graduate of Cambrian College.

Rick Graziani teaches computer science and computer networking courses at Cabrillo College in Aptos, California. Rick has worked and taught in the computer networking and information technology field for 30 years.

How To: Look for this icon to study the steps that you need to learn to perform certain tasks.

Packet Tracer Activities: Explore networking concepts in activities interspersed throughout some chapters using

Packet Tracer v4.1 developed by Cisco. The files for these activities are on the accompanying CD-ROM.

Also available for the Accessing the WAN Course

Accessing the WAN,

CCNA Exploration

Labs and Study Guide

ISBN-10: 1-58713-201-X

ISBN-13: 978-1-58713-201-8

Companion CD-ROM

The CD-ROM provides many useful tools and information to support your education:

Packet Tracer Activity exercise files

  • A Guide to Using a Networker's Journal booklet
  • Taking Notes: A .txt file of the chapter objectives
  • More IT Career Information
  • Tips on Lifelong Learning in Networking

This book is part of the Cisco Networking Academy Series from Cisco Press. The products in this series support and complement the Cisco Networking Academy online curriculum.

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About Bob Vachon

Bob Vachon

is the coordinator of the Computer Systems Technology program at Cambrian College in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, where he teaches networking infrastructure courses.

He has worked and taught in the computer networking and information technology field since 1984. He is a scholar graduate of Cambrian College, and he received the prestigious

Teaching Excellence Award in 1997. Vachon has been a Cisco Networking Academy instructor since 1999 and has been CCNP certified since 2002. He has worked with Cisco

as team lead, author, CCNP certification assessment developer, and subject matter expert on a variety of projects, including CCNA, CCNP, and global partner training courses. He

enjoys playing the guitar and being outdoors, either working in his gardens or white-water canoe tripping.

Rick Graziani teaches computer science and computer networking courses at Cabrillo College in Aptos, California. He has worked and taught in the computer networking and

information technology fields for almost 30 years. Before that, he worked in IT for various companies, including Santa Cruz Operation, Tandem Computers, and Lockheed Missiles

and Space Corporation. He holds an M.A. in computer science and systems theory from California State University Monterey Bay. Graziani also does consulting work for Cisco and

other companies. When he is not working, he is most likely surfing. He is an avid surfer who enjoys longboarding at his favorite Santa Cruz surf breaks.

Table of Contents

&atext-align=left align=left>Chapter 1 Introduction to WANs 1

Objectives 1

Key Terms 1

Introducing Wide-Area Networks (WANs) 3

What Is a WAN? 3

Why Are WANs Necessary? 5

The Evolving Enterprise 5

Businesses and Their Networks 5

Small Office (Single LAN) 6

Campus (Multiple LANs) 6

Branch (WAN) 8

Distributed (Global) 9

The Evolving Network Model 11

The Hierarchical Design Model 11

The Enterprise Architecture 13

WAN Technology Concepts 17

WAN Technology Overview 17

WAN Physical Layer Concepts 18

WAN Data Link Layer Concepts 23

WAN Switching Concepts 26

WAN Connection Options 29

WAN Link Connection Options 29

Dedicated Connection Link Options 31

Circuit-Switched Connection Options 32

Packet-Switched Connection Options 35

I nternet Connection Options 38

Choosing a WAN Link Connection 44

Summary 48

Labs 49

Check Your Understanding 50

Challenge Questions and Activities 54

Chapter 2 PPP 55

Objectives 55

Key Terms 55

Introducing Serial Communications 56

How Does Serial Communication Work? 56

Serial Communication Standards 59

TDM 61

Demarcation Point 66

Data Terminal Equipment and Data Communications Equipment 67

HDLC Encapsulation 72

Configuring HDLC Encapsulation 75

Troubleshooting Serial Interfaces 76

PPP Concepts 83

Introducing PPP 83

PPP Layered Architecture 84

PPP Frame Structure 87

Establishing a PPP Session 88

Establishing a Link with LCP 89

NCP Explained 95

PPP Configuration Options 97

PPP Configuration Commands 98

Verifying a Serial PPP Encapsulation Configuration 101

Troubleshooting PPP Encapsulation 102

PPP Authentication Protocols 108

Password Authentication Protocol 109

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) 110

PPP Encapsulation and Authentication Process 112

Configuring PPP with Authentication 115

Troubleshooting a PPP Configuration with Authentication 118

Summary 120

Labs 120

Check Your Understanding 122

Challenge Questions and Activities 126

Chapter 3 Frame Relay 127

Objectives 127

Key Terms 127

Introduction 128

Basic Frame Relay Concepts 128

Introducing Frame Relay 128

Virtual Circuits 134

Frame Relay Encapsulation 140

Frame Relay Topologies 141

Frame Relay Address Mapping 145

Configuring Frame Relay 152

Enabling Frame Relay Encapsulation 153

Configuring Static Frame Relay Maps 156

Advanced Frame Relay Concepts 159

Solving Reachability Issues 159

Frame Relay Subinterfaces 161

Paying for Frame Relay 162

Frame Relay Flow Control 166

Configuring Advanced Frame Relay 168

Configuring Frame Relay Subinterfaces 168

Verifying Frame Relay Operation 171

Troubleshooting Frame Relay Configuration 178

Summary 180

Labs 181

Check Your Understanding 182

Challenge Questions and Activities 188

To Learn More 188

Chapter 4 Network Security 189

Objectives 189

Key Terms 189

Introduction to Network Security 190

Why Is Network Security Important? 190

Common Security Threats 199

Types of Network Attacks 206

General Mitigation Techniques 219

The Network Security Wheel 226

The Enterprise Security Policy 229

Securing Cisco Routers 232

Router Security Issues 232

Applying Cisco IOS Security Features to Routers 235

Securing Router Network Services 250

Vulnerable Router Services and Interfaces 250

Securing Routing Protocols 256

Locking Down Your Router with Cisco AutoSecure 263

Using Cisco SDM 264

Cisco SDM Overview 264

Configuring Your Router to Support SDM 265

Starting SDM 267

The SDM Interface 269

Cisco SDM Wizards 272

Locking Down a Router with SDM 272

Secure Router Management 275

Maintaining Cisco IOS Software Images 275

Managing Cisco IOS Images 276

Managing Cisco IOS Images 283

Backing Up and Upgrading a Software Image 284

Recovering Software Images 288

Troubleshooting Cisco IOS Configurations 294

Recovering a Lost Password 297

Summary 301

Labs 301

Check Your Understanding 302

Challenge Questions and Activities 308

Chapter 5 ACLs 309

Objectives 309

Key Terms 309

Using ACLs to Secure Networks 310

A TCP Conversation 310

Packet Filtering 313

What Is an ACL? 316

ACL Operation 318

Types of Cisco ACLs 322

How a Standard ACL Works 323

Numbering and Naming ACLs 323

Where to Place ACLs 324

General Guidelines for Creating ACLs 327

Configuring Standard ACLs 327

Entering Criteria Statements 327

Configuring a Standard ACL 328

ACL Wildcard Masking 332

Applying Standard ACLs to Interfaces 339

Editing Numbered ACLs 343

Creating Standard Named ACLs 345

Monitoring and Verifying ACLs 346

Editing Named ACLs 347

Configuring an Extended ACL 348

Extended ACLs 349

Configuring Extended ACLs 351

Applying Extended ACLs to the Interfaces 353

Creating Named Extended ACLs 355

Configure Complex ACLs 357

What Are Complex ACLs? 357

Dynamic ACLs 358

Reflexive ACLs 360

Time-Based ACLs 363

Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors 364

Summary 368

Labs 368

Check Your Understanding 369

Challenge Questions and Activities 375

Chapter 6 Teleworker Services 377

Objectives 377

Key Terms 377

Business Requirements for Teleworker Services 379

The Business Requirements for Teleworker Services 379

The Teleworker Solution 380

Broadband Services 384

Connecting Teleworkers to the WAN 384

Cable 385

DSL 391

Broadband Wireless 396

VPN Technology 401

VPNs and Their Benefits 402

Types of VPNs 405

VPN Components 407

Characteristics of Secure VPNs 408

VPN Tunneling 409

VPN Data Confidentiality and Integrity 410

IPsec Security Protocols 416

Summary 419

Labs 419

Check Your Understanding 419

Challenge Questions and Activities 423

Chapter 7 IP Addressing Services 429

Objectives 429

Key Terms 429

Introduction 431

DHCP 431

Introduction to DHCP 432

DHCP Operation 432

BOOTP and DHCP 435

Configuring a Cisco Router as a DHCP Server 440

Configuring a DHCP Client 447

DHCP Relay 449

Configuring a DHCP Server Using SDM 453

Troubleshooting DHCP Configuration 456

Scaling Networks with NAT 460

What Is NAT? 462

Benefits and Drawbacks of Using NAT 468

Configuring Static NAT 470

Configuring Dynamic NAT 471

Configuring NAT Overload for a Single Public IP Address 473

Configuring NAT Overload for a Pool of Public IP Addresses 475

Configuring Port Forwarding 477

Verifying NAT and NAT Overload 479

Troubleshooting NAT and NAT Overload Configuration 483

IPv6 485

Reasons for Using IPv6 489

IPv6 Addressing 493

IPv6 Transition Strategies 499

Cisco IOS Dual Stack 500

IPv6 Tunneling 502

Routing Configurations with IPv6 503

Configuring IPv6 Addresses 506

Configuring RIPng with IPv6 508

Summary 512

Labs 512

Check Your Understanding 514

Challenge Questions and Activities 522

Chapter 8 Network Troubleshooting 525

Objectives 525

Key Terms 525

Establishing the Network Performance Baseline 526

Documenting Your Network 526

Network Documentation Process 533

Why Is Establishing a Network Baseline Important? 535

Steps for Establishing a Network Baseline 535

Troubleshooting Methodologies and Tools 541

A General Approach to Troubleshooting 541

Using Layered Models for Troubleshooting 541

General Troubleshooting Procedures 544

Troubleshooting Methods 545

Gathering Symptoms 548

Troubleshooting Tools 551

Review of WAN Communications 560

WAN Communications 560

Steps in WAN Design 561

WAN Traffic Considerations 562

WAN Topology Considerations 564

WAN Connection Technologies 567

WAN Bandwidth Considerations 568

Common WAN Implementations Issues 569

WAN Troubleshooting from an ISP's Perspective 570

Network Troubleshooting 571

Physical Layer Troubleshooting 573

Data Link Layer Troubleshooting 577

Network Layer Troubleshooting 584

Transport Layer Troubleshooting 586

Application Layer Troubleshooting 589

Summary 595

Labs 595

Check Your Understanding 596

Challenge Questions and Activities 600

Appendix 601

Glossary 637

Additional information

Accessing the WAN: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide by Bob Vachon
Bob Vachon
Used - Very Good
Pearson Education (US)
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