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Surfactant Systems By D. Attwood

Surfactant Systems
by D. Attwood

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Surfactant Systems Summary

Surfactant Systems: Their Chemistry, Pharmacy and Biology by D. Attwood

It is now twelve years since Solubilization by Surface-Active Agents appeared. Since the publication of that monograph the subject has expanded rapidly as the unique potential of surfactants has become known to a wider circle of scientists. In a recent review Menger (Accounts of Chemical Research, 12 (1979) 111) estimated that since 1970 there have been over 2800 publications on micelles and micellization alone. The topic of catalysis in micellar media was in an early stage of development in 1968 but the growth in this subject has given rise to an excellent textbook by Fendler and Fendler. We have felt for some time that a revision of Solubilization by Surface-Active Agents was overdue. The book has been out of print for some time. Owing to pressure of other work, Professor P. H. Elworthy and Dr C. B. Macfarlane were unable to undertake the work of revision but while working together on an undergraduate textbook the present authors decided to set to work, realizing both the impossibility of producing a comprehensive textbook and the need to alter the scope of the book. Micellar solubilization occurs over a relatively small surfactant concentration range; because of this and because the phenomenon is never observed in isolation, we have extended the text to include surface activity, emulsions and suspensions and, as our emphasis is on formulation of medicinal products, to the of the toxicology of surface-active agents.

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Table of Contents

1. Surface activity.- 1.1 Amphipathic molecules.- 1.2 Surface activity in aqueous solution.- 1.3 Adsorption at liquid surfaces.- 1.4 Adsorption at solid surfaces.- 1.5 The wettability of solid surfaces.- 1.6 Modification of the surface properties of solids by adsorbed surfactants.- References.- 2. Phase behaviour of surfactants.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Liquid crystalline phases in binary surfactant systems.- 2.3 Liquid crystalline phases in ternary surfactant systems.- 2.4 Factors affecting phase behaviour.- 2.5 Quaternary phase systems.- References.- 3. Micellization.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Micellar structure.- 3.3 Micellar shape.- 3.4 Polydispersity of micellar size.- 3.5 Factors affecting the CMC and micellar size.- 3.6 Thermodynamics of micelle formation.- 3.7 Kinetics of micelle formation.- 3.8 Non-micellar association.- 3.9 Micelle formation in non-aqueous solvents.- References.- 4. Surface activity and colloidal properties of drugs and naturally occurring substances.- 4.1 Colloidal properties of drugs.- 4.2 Some biological consequences of drug surface activity.- 4.3 Biological relevance of micelle formation by drug molecules.- 4.4 Naturally occurring micelle formers: the bile salts, phospholipids and related systems.- References.- 5. Solubilization.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Experimental methods of studying solubilization.- 5.3 Mobility of solubilizate molecules.- 5.4 Factors influencing solubilization.- 5.5 Effect of solubilizate on micellar properties.- 5.6 Solubilization in non-aqueous solvents.- References.- 6. Pharmaceutical aspects of solubilization.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Solubilization of drugs.- 6.3 Pharmaceutical aspects of solubilization in non-aqueous systems.- 6.4 Solubilization with block co-polymeric surfactants.- 6.5 Polymer-surfactant interactions.- 6.6 Surfactant interactions with oppositely charged species.- 6.7 Hydrotropy in pharmaceutical systems.- References.- 7. Biological implications of surfactant presence in formulation.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Effect of surfactants on dissolution of drugs.- 7.3 Effect of surfactants on membrane permeability.- 7.4 Effect of surfactants on drug absorption.- 7.5 Miscellaneous formulations and the influence of surfactants.- 7.6 Surfactants and antibacterial activity.- 7.7 Utilization of solubilization in drug delivery systems.- References.- 8. Emulsions.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Aspects of emulsion stability.- 8.3 Multiple emulsions.- 8.4 Microemulsions.- 8.5 Viscosity and rheological characteristics of emulsions.- 8.6 Solute disposition in emulsion systems.- 8.7 Biopharmaceutical aspects of emulsions.- References.- 9. Surfactants in suspension systems.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Settling of suspended particles.- 9.3 Suspension stability.- 9.4 Effect of surfactants on the adsorptive capacity of suspensions.- 9.5 Rheological characteristics of suspensions.- 9.6 Crystal changes in suspensions.- 9.7 Bacterial and other cell suspensions.- References.- 10. Aspects of surfactant toxicity.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Metabolism of surfactants.- 10.3 Interactions of surfactants with membranes and membrane components.- 10.4 Toxicology of surfactants.- 10.5 Surfactants and plant systems.- References.- 11. Reactivity in surfactant systems.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Chemistry at interfaces.- 11.3 Micellar reactions.- 11.4 Stability of drugs in surfactant systems.- 11.5 Stability of surfactant systems.- 11.6 Polymerization of surface-active molecules.- 11.7 Some analytical consequences of surfactant presence.- References.

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Surfactant Systems: Their Chemistry, Pharmacy and Biology by D. Attwood
D. Attwood
Used - Very Good
Chapman and Hall
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