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Biopsychology By John P. J. Pinel

Biopsychology
by John P. J. Pinel

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Biopsychology Summary


Biopsychology: International Edition by John P. J. Pinel

Pinel clearly presents the fundamentals Biopsychology and makes the topics personally and socially relevant to the reader.


The defining feature of Biopsychology is its unique combination of biopsychological science and personal, reader-oriented discourse. Rather than introducing biopsychology in the usual textbook fashion, it interweaves the fundamentals of the field with clinical case studies, social issues, personal implications, and humorous anecdotes. It tries to be a friendly mentor that speaks directly to the reader, enthusiastically relating recent advances in biopsychological science.

Note: This is the standalone book, if you want the book/access card order the ISBN below:

0205216951 / 9780205216956 Biopsychology with NEW MyPsychLab and Pearson eText

Package consists of:

0205206514 / 9780205206513 NEW MyPsychLab with Pearson eText -- Valuepack Access Card

0205832563 / 9780205832569 Biopsychology

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Biopsychology Reviews


Excerpt from a letter to the author (used with permission):

Dr. Pinel, OUTSTANDING!!!!!

I am a student at Walden University in the PhD Psychology program, I live in Michigan. I must admit, when I first heard that I would have to take Biopsychology I was not happy as I gasped for breath. I had already made up in my mind that it would prove to be a difficult course and I would probably have to drop the course. However, surprisingly, I found that your ease of writing in talking with the student proved me wrong. I actually LOVED the textbook. It was as if you were talking right to me in a manner in which I could easily comprehend. I never thought of learning about the human brain before taking the class, but must admit, it has to this point in my program been one of my favorites.

I wanted to say thank you, thank you, thank you. You opened up a new world to me. I just started teaching at a local college this year and I tell you, having taken Biopsychology has truly prepared me to teach general psychology and other classes within the counseling cohort. I am still amazed at how much information I have retained due to the colorful illustrations and ease of reading. Though I am in a doctorate program, and the program is truly rigourous, having read your text was a breath of fresh air. Top quality education with all of the learning tools needed for todays adult learners. Continued success to you on your endeavors. By the way, thanks for all of the stories including yours that you shared.

Sincerely grateful,"

- Michelle Brown, Ph.D. candidate at Walden University

Excerpt from a letter to the author (used with permission):

"I am currently a 2nd year Psychology student at the University of Western Ontario and I am taking a Biopsychology class...I have to say what an amazing text this is...

I recently switched majors from physiology/medical sciences to psychology and I was confused for a while about what I liked more: biological sciences or psychology. I didn't know I could combine them until I read your textbook. Your book was inspirational for me and I now have a clearer, more defined idea of what I would like to do with my degree and future endeavours. Thank you very much for writing such an interesting textbook that was so clearly aimed to help students understand and appreciate biopsychology. I honestly attribute my new-found interest in biopsychology to the amazing work you put in to this text. Too bad I am several provinces away from B.C, I would have loved to be in one of your classes! Thank you again and I hope to read more of your work in the future."

- Tannis, student at University of Western Ontario

Excerpt from a letter to the author (used with permission):
"I am doing a Graduate Diploma in Psychology in Brisbane, Australia and just wanted to say that your textbook is particularly interesting and stimulating. I can see that there is passion and clarity in every chapter and your own experiences with the tumour as relayed in Chapter 10 was fascinating. It's good to know that some texts can have that "human" factor, and this really makes an impact on the reader. "

- Simon, student at Brisbane, Australia

Excerpt from a letter to the author (used with permission):

"Dr. Pinel:

I just completed a Physiological Psychology class at Chapman University College. Your Biopsychology text was required for the class. It was the BEST textbook I have ever used. I'm 51 years old and have taken many classes in my life so that's saying a heck of lot!!! Believe me, I have certainly never written to the author to complement him on the text. You made me laugh out loud on more than one occasion.

Thank you, thank you, thank you for making a tough class enjoyable."

- Eileen, student at Chapman University

Excerpt from a letter to the author (used with permission):

"I have just finished reading your book and wanted to thank you for writing it. I like the way you presented the information as if you were "chatting" with me. It was very easy to understand and a fun read. I especially liked all the vignettes and diagrams. They helped me to visualize and understand the topic you were discussing. I also reviewed the CD after every chapter I read and found it to be a helpful tool in preparing for my exams. Before taking this class I was very nervous and unsure of whether or not I would be able to grasp the information. Now class is almost over and I have a 95% in my class. I am taking my final exam tomorrow and I am confident I will do well. I feel that my understanding of the information in your book was due to the way it was written. It was very relaxed and personal, a goal you strived for in writing this book. So again, thanks for sharing your knowledge with me."

- Priscilla, student at Chapman University

Excerpt from a letter to the author (used with permission):

"Dr. Pinel,

I am a student who has just completed a Biopsychology course designed around your textbook (6th ed.) at Birmingham-Southern College. To confess my initial thoughts, I largely began this course because it is one of the requirements of my Psychology major and I gazed rather unexcitedly upon the cover of your textbook, assuming it to be like some of the other repetitive, over-written books I had become accustomed to during my three years at this college. However, as I delved a little deeper into the subject matter, exploring topics from sex and hormones to sleep cycles to neuroplasticity, I began to realize that your textbook is unlike any I had ever used. Not only is the research you include very pertinent to the subject and thought-provoking, but you seem to take the time to include personal notes, stories, and anecdotes that truly set your work apart from other texts. I can tell that Psychology is a field that really excites you, and in turn, I am more excited about my major. I just wanted to send you this small token of my graditude and a thanks for changing my mind about Psychology.

- Jeff Tullis, Birmingham-Southern College"

Excerpt from a letter to the author (used with permission):

"Dr. Pinel:

What a fabulous textbook on neuropsychology. I never thought I would use the words "fabulous textbook" and "neuropsychology" in the same sentence, but there it is.

I can't tell you how surprised and delighted I was to read the book you wrote. The topic can be a bit obtuse, (there is an understatement!), but you have an incredible talent for making it not just tolerable, but interesting and even compelling.

Anyway, since I tell everyone else about what a wonderful book Biopsychology is I thought it only appropriate that I tell you as well. Thank you for writing such a profound and easily understood book about a topic that is so challenging to comprehend."

-Vic Napier

About John P. J. Pinel


John Pinel, the author of Biopsychology, obtained his Ph.D. from McGill University in Montreal and worked briefly at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, before taking a faculty position at the University of British Columbia, where he is currently Professor Emeritus. Professor Pinel is an award-winning teacher and the author of over 200 scientific papers. However, he feels that Biopsychology is his major career-related accomplishment. "It ties together everything I love about my job; students, teaching, writing, and research."

Pinel attributes much of his success to his wife Maggie who is an artist and professional designer. Over the years, they have collaborated on many projects, and the quality of Biopsychology's illustrations is largely attributable to her skill and effort.

Table of Contents


Brief Table of Contents

Part 1: What is Biopsychology?

Chapter 1: Biopsychology as a Neuroscience: What Is Biopsychology, Anyway?

Part 2: Foundations of Biopsychology

Chapter 2: Evolution, Genetics, and Experience: Thinking about the Biology of Behavior

Chapter 3: Anatomy of the Nervous System: Systems, Structures, and Cells That Make Up Your Nervous System

Chapter 4: Neural Conduction and Synaptic Transmission: How Neurons Send and Receive Signals

Chapter 5: The Research Methods of Biopsychology: Understanding What Biopsychologists Do

PART ONE Methods of Studying the Nervous System

PART TWO Behavioral Research Methods of Biopsychology

Part 3: Sensory and Motor Systems

Chapter 6: The Visual System: How We See

Chapter 7: Mechanisms of Perception: Hearing, Touch, Smell, Taste, and Attention: How You Know the World

Chapter 8: The Sensorimotor System: How You Move

Part 4: Brain Plasticity

Chapter 9: Development of the Nervous System: From Fertilized Egg to You

Chapter 10: Brain Damage and Neuroplasticity: Can the Brain Recover from Damage?

Chapter 11: Learning, Memory, and Amnesia: How Your Brain Stores Information

Part 5: Biopsychology of Motivation

Chapter 12: Hunger, Eating, and Health: Why Do Many People Eat Too Much?

Chapter 13: Hormones and Sex: What's Wrong with the Mamawawa?

Chapter 14: Sleep, Dreaming, and Circadian Rhythms: How Much Do You Need to Sleep?

Chapter 15: Drug Addiction and the Brain's Reward Circuits: Chemicals That Harm with Pleasure

Part 6: Disorders of Cognition and Emotion

Chapter 16: Lateralization, Language, and the Split Brain: The Left Brain and the Right Brain of Language

Chapter 17: Biopsychology of Emotion, Stress, and Health: Fear, the Dark Side of Emotion

Chapter 18: Biopsychology of Psychiatric Disorders: The Brain Unhinged

Detailed Table of Contents

Chapter 1

Biopsychology as a Neuroscience: What Is Biopsychology, Anyway?

Four Major Themes of This Book

1.1 What Is Biopsychology?

1.2 What Is the Relation between Biopsychology and the Other Disciplines of Neuroscience?

1.3 What Types of Research Characterize the Biopsychological Approach?

Human and Nonhuman Subjects

Experiments and Nonexperiments

Pure and Applied Research

1.4 What Are the Divisions of Biopsychology?

Physiological Psychology

Psychopharmacology

Neuropsychology

Psychophysiology

Cognitive Neuroscience

Comparative Psychology

1.5 Converging Operations: How Do Biopsychologists Work Together?

1.6 Scientific Inference: How Do Biopsychologists Study the Unobservable Workings of the Brain?

1.7 Critical Thinking about Biopsychological Claims

Themes Revisited

Think about it

Sample study questions

Key terms


Chapter 2

Evolution, Genetics, and Experience: Thinking about the Biology of Behavior

2.1 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior: From Dichotomies to Interactions

Is It Physiological, or Is It Psychological?

Is It Inherited, or Is It Learned?

Problems with Thinking about the Biology of Behavior in Terms of Traditional Dichotomies

2.2 Human Evolution

Course of Human Evolution

Thinking about Human Evolution

Evolution of the Human Brain

Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Mate Bonding

Thinking about Evolutionary Psychology

2.3 Fundamental Genetics

Mendelian Genetics

Chromosomes: Reproduction and Recombination

Chromosomes: Structure and Replication

Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Traits

The Genetic Code and Gene Expression

Mitochondrial DNA

Modern Genetics

2.4 Behavioral Development: Interaction of Genetic Factors and Experience

Selective Breeding of "Maze-Bright" and "Maze-Dull" Rats

Phenylketonuria: A Single-Gene Metabolic Disorder

Development of Birdsong

2.5 Genetics of Human Psychological Differences

Development of Individuals versus Development of Differences among Individuals

Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms

Chapter 3

Anatomy of the Nervous System: Systems, Structures, and Cells That Make Up Your Nervous System

3.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

Divisions of the Nervous System

Meninges, Ventricles, and Cerebrospinal Fluid

Blood-Brain Barrier

3.2 Cells of the Nervous System

Anatomy of Neurons

Glial Cells: The Forgotten Cells

3.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

Neuroanatomical Techniques

Directions in the Vertebrate Nervous System

3.4 Spinal Cord

3.5 Five Major Divisions of the Brain

3.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Myelencephalon

Metencephalon

Mesencephalon

Diencephalon

Telencephalon

The Limbic System and the Basal Ganglia

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms


Chapter 4

Neural Conduction and Synaptic Transmission: How Neurons Send and Receive Signals

4.1 Neuron's Resting Membrane Potential

Recording the Membrane Potential

Resting Membrane Potential

Ionic Basis of the Resting Potential

4.2 Generation and Conduction of Postsynaptic Potentials

4.3 Integration of Postsynaptic Potentials and Generation of Action Potentials

4.4 Conduction of Action Potentials

The Ionic Basis of Action Potentials

Refractory Periods

Axonal Conduction of Action Potentials

Conduction in Myelinated Axons

The Velocity of Axonal Conduction

Conduction in Neurons without Axons

The Hodgkin-Huxley Model in Perspective

4.5 Synaptic Transmission: Chemical Transmission of Signals Among Neurons

Structure of Synapses

Synthesis, Packaging, and Transport of Neurotransmitter Molecules

Release of Neurotransmitter Molecules

Activation of Receptors by Neurotransmitter Molecules

Reuptake, Enzymatic Degradation, and Recycling

Glial Function and Synaptic Transmission

4.6 Neurotransmitters

Amino Acid Neurotransmitters

Monoamine Neurotransmitters

Acetylcholine

Unconventional Neurotransmitters

Neuropeptides

4.7 Pharmacology of Synaptic Transmission and Behavior

How Drugs Influence Synaptic Transmission

Behavioral Pharmacology: Three Influential Lines of Research

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms


Chapter 5

The Research Methods of Biopsychology: Understanding What Biopsychologists Do

PART ONE Methods of Studying the Nervous System

5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Contrast X-Rays

X-Ray Computed Tomography

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Positron Emission Tomography

Functional MRI

Magnetoencephalography

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Scalp Electroencephalography

Muscle Tension

Eye Movement

Cardiovascular Activity

5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Stereotaxic Surgery

Lesion Methods

Electrical Stimulation

Invasive Electrophysiological Recording Methods

5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Routes of Drug Administration

Selective Chemical Lesions

Measuring Chemical Activity of the Brain

Locating Neurotransmitters and Receptors in the Brain

5.5 Genetic Engineering

Gene Knockout Techniques

Gene Replacement Techniques

Fantastic Fluorescence and the Brainbow

PART TWO Behavioral Research Methods of Biopsychology

5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Modern Approach to Neuropsychological Testing

Tests of the Common Neuropsychological Test Battery

Tests of Specific Neuropsychological Function

Frontal-Lobe Function

5.7 Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Paradigms for Assessment of Species-Common Behaviors

Traditional Conditioning Paradigms

Seminatural Animal Learning Paradigms

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms


Chapter 6

The Visual System: How We See

6.1 Light Enters the Eye and Reaches the Retina

The Pupil and the Lens

Eye Position and Binocular Disparity

6.2 The Retina and Translation of Light into Neural Signals

Cone and Rod Vision

Spectral Sensitivity

Eye Movement

Visual Transduction: The Conversion of Light to Neural Signals

6.3 From Retina to Primary Visual Cortex

Retinotopic Organization

The M and P Channels

6.4 Seeing Edges

Lateral Inhibition and Contrast Enhancement

Receptive Fields of Visual Neurons

Receptive Fields: Neurons of the Retina-Geniculate-Striate System

Receptive Fields: Simple Cortical Cells

Receptive Fields: Complex Cortical Cells

Columnar Organization of Primary Visual Cortex

Plasticity of Receptive Fields of Neurons in the Visual Cortex

6.5 Seeing Color

Component and Opponent Processing

Color Constancy and the Retinex Theory

6.6 Cortical Mechanisms of Vision and Conscious Awareness

Damage to Primary Visual Cortex: Scotomas and Completion

Damage to Primary Visual Cortex: Scotomas, Blindsight, and Conscious Awareness

Functional Areas of Secondary and Association Visual Cortex

Dorsal and Ventral Streams

Prosopagnosia

Akinetopsia

Conclusion

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms


Chapter 7

Mechanisms of Perception: Hearing, Touch, Smell, Taste, and Attention: How You Know the World

7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

Hierarchical Organization

Functional Segregation

Parallel Processing

Summary Model of Sensory System Organization

7.2 Auditory System

The Ear

From the Ear to the Primary Auditory Cortex

Subcortical Mechanisms of Sound Localization

Auditory Cortex

Effects of Damage to the Auditory System

7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Cutaneous Receptors

Dermatomes

Two Major Somatosensory Pathways

Cortical Areas of Somatosensation

Effects of Damage to the Primary Somatosensory Cortex

Somatosensory System and Association Cortex

Somatosensory Agnosias

Perception of Pain

Neuropathic Pain

7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Olfactory System

Gustatory System

Brain Damage and the Chemical Senses

7.5 Selective Attention

Change Blindness

Neural Mechanisms of Attention

Simultanagnosia

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms


Chapter 8

The Sensorimotor System: How You Move

8.1 Three Principles of Sensorimotor Function

The Sensorimotor System Is Hierarchically Organized

Motor Output Is Guided by Sensory Input

Learning Changes the Nature and Locus of Sensorimotor Control

A General Model of Sensorimotor System Function

8.2 Sensorimotor Association Cortex

Posterior Parietal Association Cortex

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Association Cortex

8.3 Secondary Motor Cortex

Identifying the Areas of Secondary Motor Cortex

Mirror Neurons

8.4 Primary Motor Cortex

Belle: The Monkey That Controlled a Robot with Her Mind

8.5 Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia

Cerebellum

Basal Ganglia

8.6 Descending Motor Pathways

Dorsolateral Corticospinal Tract and Dorsolateral Corticorubrospinal Tract

Ventromedial Corticospinal Tract and Ventromedial Cortico-brainstem-spinal Tract

Comparison of the Two Dorsolateral Motor Pathways and the Two Ventromedial Motor Pathways

8.7 Sensorimotor Spinal Circuits

Muscles

Receptor Organs of Tendons and Muscles

Stretch Reflex

Withdrawal Reflex

Reciprocal Innervation

Recurrent Collateral Inhibition

Walking: A Complex Sensorimotor Reflex

8.8 Central Sensorimotor Programs

Central Sensorimotor Programs Are Capable of Motor Equivalence

Sensory Information That Controls Central Sensorimotor Programs Is Not Necessarily Conscious

Central Sensorimotor Programs Can Develop without Practice

Practice Can Create Central Sensorimotor Programs

Functional Brain Imaging of Sensorimotor Learning

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms


Chapter 9

Development of the Nervous System: From Fertilized Egg to You

9.1 Phases of Neurodevelopment

Induction of the Neural Plate

Neural Proliferation

Migration and Aggregation

Axon Growth and Synapse Formation

Neuron Death and Synapse Rearrangement

9.2 Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants

Postnatal Growth of the Human Brain

Development of the Prefrontal Cortex

9.3 Effects of Experience on the Early Development, Maintenance, and Reorganization of Neural Circuits

Early Studies of Experience and Neurodevelopment: Deprivation and Enrichment

Competitive Nature of Experience and Neurodevelopment: Ocular Dominance Columns

Effects of Experience on Topographic Sensory Cortex Maps

Experience Fine-Tunes Neurodevelopment

9.4 Neuroplasticity in Adults

Neurogenesis in Adult Mammals

Effects of Experience on the Reorganization of the Adult Cortex

9.5 Disorders of Neurodevelopment: Autism and Williams Syndrome

Williams Syndrome

Epilogue

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms


Chapter 10

Brain Damage and Neuroplasticity: Can the Brain Recover from Damage?

10.1 Causes of Brain Damage

Brain Tumors

Cerebrovascular Disorders: Strokes

Closed-Head Injuries

Infections of the Brain

Neurotoxins

Genetic Factors

Programmed Cell Death

10.2 Neuropsychological Diseases

Epilepsy

Parkinson's Disease

Huntington's Disease

Multiple Sclerosis

Alzheimer's Disease

10.3 Animal Models of Human Neuropsychological Diseases

Kindling Model of Epilepsy

Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

MPTP Model of Parkinson's Disease

10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage: Degeneration, Regeneration, Reorganization, and Recovery

Neural Regeneration

Neural Reorganization

Recovery of Function after Brain Damage

10.5 Neuroplasticity and the Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Reducing Brain Damage by Blocking Neurodegeneration

Promoting Recovery from CNS Damage by Promoting Regeneration

Promoting Recovery from CNS Damage by Neurotransplantation

Promoting Recovery from CNS Damage by Rehabilitative Training

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms


Chapter 11

Learning, Memory, and Amnesia: How Your Brain Stores Information

11.1 Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

Formal Assessment of H.M.'s Anterograde Amnesia: Discovery of Unconscious Memories

Three Major Scientific Contributions of H.M.'s Case

Medial Temporal Lobe Amnesia

Semantic and Episodic Memories

11.2 Amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome

11.3 Amnesia of Alzheimer's Disease

11.4 Amnesia after Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

Posttraumatic Amnesia

Gradients of Retrograde Amnesia and Memory Consolidation

Hippocampus and Consolidation

Reconsolidation

11.5 Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

Monkey Model of Object-Recognition Amnesia: The Delayed Nonmatching-to-Sample Test

Delayed Nonmatching-to-Sample Test for Rats

Neuroanatomical Basis of the Object-Recognition Deficits Resulting from Medial Temporal Lobectomy

11.6 The Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

Hippocampal Lesions Disrupt the Performance of Spatial Tasks

Hippocampal Place Cells

Hippocampal and Entorhinal Grid Cells

Comparative Studies of the Hippocampus and Spatial Memory

Theories of Hippocampal Function

11.7 Where Are Memories Stored?

Inferotemporal Cortex

Amygdala

Prefrontal Cortex

Cerebellum and Striatum

11.8 Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

Long-Term Potentiation

Induction of LTP: Learning

Maintenance and Expression of LTP: Storage and Recall

Variability of LTP

11.9 Conclusion: Biopsychology of Memory and You

Infantile Amnesia

Smart Drugs: Do They Work?

Posttraumatic Amnesia and Episodic Memory

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms

Chapter 12

Hunger, Eating, and Health: Why Do Many People Eat Too Much?

12.1 Digestion, Energy Storage, and Energy Utilization

Digestion

Energy Storage in the Body

Three Phases of Energy Metabolism

12.2 Theories of Hunger and Eating: Set Points versus Positive Incentives

Set-Point Assumption

Glucostatic and Lipostatic Set-Point Theories of Hunger and Eating

Positive-Incentive Perspective

12.3 Factors That Determine What, When, and How Much We Eat

Factors That Determine What We Eat

Factors That Influence When We Eat

Factors That Influence How Much We Eat

12.4 Physiological Research on Hunger and Satiety

Role of Blood Glucose Levels in Hunger and Satiety

Myth of Hypothalamic Hunger and Satiety Centers

Role of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Satiety

Hunger and Satiety Peptides

12.5 Body Weight Regulation: Set Points versus Settling Points

Set-Point Assumptions about Body Weight and Eating

Set Points and Settling Points in Weight Control

12.6 Human Obesity: Causes, Treatments, and Mechanisms

Who Needs to Be Concerned about Obesity?

Why Is There an Epidemic of Obesity?

Why Do Some People Become Obese While Others Do Not?

Why Are Weight-Loss Programs Typically Ineffective?

Leptin and the Regulation of Body Fat

Serotonergic Drugs and the Treatment of Obesity

12.7 Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa

The Relation between Anorexia and Bulimia

Anorexia and Positive Incentives

Anorexia Nervosa: A Hypothesis

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms


Chapter 13

Hormones and Sex: What's Wrong with the Mamawawa?

Men-Are-Men-and-Women-Are-Women Assumption

Developmental and Activational Effects of Sex Hormones

13.1 Neuroendocrine System

Glands

Gonads

Classes of Hormones

Sex Steroids

Hormones of the Pituitary

Female Gonadal Hormone Levels Are Cyclic; Male Gonadal Hormone Levels Are Steady

Neural Control of the Pituitary

Control of the Anterior and Posterior Pituitary by the Hypothalamus

Discovery of Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones

Regulation of Hormone Levels

Pulsatile Hormone Release

Summary Model of Gonadal Endocrine Regulation

13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

Fetal Hormones and Development of Reproductive Organs

Puberty: Hormones and the Development of Secondary Sex Characteristics

13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

Sex Differences in the Brain

Perinatal Hormones and Behavioral Development

13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Sexual Development

Do the Exceptional Cases Prove the Rule?

13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

Male Reproduction-Related Behavior and Testosterone

Female Reproduction-Related Behavior and Gonadal Hormones

Anabolic Steroid Abuse

Neuroprotective Effects of Estradiol

13.6 Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior

Structural Differences between the Male and Female Hypothalamus

Hypothalamus and Male Sexual Behavior

Hypothalamus and Female Sexual Behavior

13.7 Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity

Sexual Orientation and Genes

Sexual Orientation and Early Hormones

What Triggers the Development of Sexual Attraction?

Is There a Difference in the Brains of Homosexuals and Heterosexuals?

Independence of Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms


Chapter 14

Sleep, Dreaming, and Circadian Rhythms: How Much Do You Need to Sleep?

14.1 Stages of Sleep

Four Stages of Sleep EEG

REM Sleep and Dreaming

Testing Common Beliefs about Dreaming

Interpretation of Dreams

14.2 Why Do We Sleep, and Why Do We Sleep When We Do?

Comparative Analysis of Sleep

14.3 Effects of Sleep Deprivation

Interpretation of Sleep Deprivation: The Stress Problem

Experimental Studies of Sleep Deprivation in Humans

Sleep-Deprivation Studies with Laboratory Animals

REM-Sleep Deprivation

Sleep Deprivation Increases the Efficiency of Sleep

14.4 Circadian Sleep Cycles

Free-Running Circadian Sleep-Wake Cycles

Jet Lag and Shift Work

A Circadian Clock Is in the Suprachiasmatic Nuclei

Neural Mechanisms of Entrainment

Genetics of Circadian Rhythms

14.5 Four Areas of the Brain Involved in Sleep

Two Areas of the Hypothalamus Involved in Sleep

Reticular Activating System and Sleep

Reticular REM-Sleep Nuclei

14.6 Drugs That Affect Sleep

Hypnotic Drugs

Antihypnotic Drugs

Melatonin

14.7 Sleep Disorders

Insomnia

Hypersomnia

REM-Sleep-Related Disorders

14.8 Effects of Long-Term Sleep Reduction

Differences Between Short and Long Sleepers

Long-Term Reduction of Nightly Sleep

Long-Term Sleep Reduction by Napping

Effects of Shorter Sleep Times on Health

Long-Term Sleep Reduction: A Personal Case Study

Conclusion

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms

Chapter 15

Drug Addiction and the Brain's Reward Circuits: Chemicals That Harm with Pleasure

15.1 Basic Principles of Drug Action

Drug Administration and Absorption

Drug Penetration of the Central Nervous System

Mechanisms of Drug Action

Drug Metabolism and Elimination

Drug Tolerance

Drug Withdrawal Effects and Physical Dependence

Addiction: What Is It?

15.2 Role of Learning in Drug Tolerance

Contingent Drug Tolerance

Conditioned Drug Tolerance

Thinking about Drug Conditioning

15.3 Five Commonly Abused Drugs

Tobacco

Marijuana

Cocaine and Other Stimulants

The Opiates: Heroin and Morphine

Comparison of the Hazards of Tobacco, Alcohol, Marijuana, Cocaine, and Heroin

15.4 Biopsychological Approaches to Theories of Addiction

Physical-Dependence and Positive-Incentive Perspectives of Addiction

From Pleasure to Compulsion: Incentive-Sensitization Theory

Relapse and Its Causes

15.5 Intracranial Self-Stimulation and the Pleasure Centers of the Brain

Fundamental Characteristics of Intracranial Self-Stimulation

Mesotelencephalic Dopamine System and Intracranial Self-Stimulation

15.6 Early Studies of Brain Mechanisms of Addiction: Dopamine

Two Key Methods for Measuring Drug-Produced Reinforcement in Laboratory Animals

Early Evidence of the Involvement of Dopamine in Drug Addiction

The Nucleus Accumbens and Drug Addiction

Support for the Involvement of Dopamine in Addiction: Evidence from Imaging Human Brains

Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens: What Is Its Function?

15.7 Current Approaches to Brain Mechanisms of Addiction

Current Issues in Modern Addiction Research

Brain Structures That Mediate Addiction: The Current View

15.8 A Noteworthy Case of Addiction

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms


Chapter 16

Lateralization, Language, and the Split Brain: The Left Brain and the Right Brain of Language

16.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction

Discovery of the Specific Contributions of Left-Hemisphere Damage to Aphasia and Apraxia

Tests of Cerebral Lateralization

Discovery of the Relation between Speech Laterality and Handedness

Sex Differences in Brain Lateralization

16.2 The Split Brain

Groundbreaking Experiment of Myers and Sperry

Commissurotomy in Human Epileptics

Evidence That the Hemispheres of Split-Brain Patients Can Function Independently

Cross-Cuing

Doing Two Things at Once

The Z Lens

Dual Mental Functioning and Conflict in Split-Brain Patients

Independence of Split Hemispheres: Current Perspective

16.3 Differences between Left and Right Hemispheres

Examples of Cerebral Lateralization of Function

What Is Lateralized-Broad Clusters of Abilities or Individual Cognitive Processes?

Anatomical Asymmetries of the Brain

16.4 Evolutionary Perspective of Cerebral Lateralization and Language

Theories of the Evolution of Cerebral Lateralization

When Did Cerebral Lateralization Evolve?

What Are the Survival Advantages of Cerebral Lateralization?

Evolution of Human Language

16.5 Cortical Localization of Language: Wernicke-Geschwind Model

Historical Antecedents of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model

The Wernicke-Geschwind Model

16.6 Wernicke-Geschwind Model: The Evidence

Effects of Cortical Damage on Language Abilities

Effects of Electrical Stimulation to the Cortex on Language Abilities

Current Status of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model

16.7 Cognitive Neuroscience of Language

Functional Brain Imaging and the Localization of Language

16.8 Cognitive Neuroscience of Dyslexia

Developmental Dyslexia: Causes and Neural Mechanisms

Developmental Dyslexia and Culture

Cognitive Neuroscience of Deep and Surface Dyslexia

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms


Chapter 17

Biopsychology of Emotion, Stress, and Health: Fear, the Dark Side of Emotion

17.1 Biopsychology of Emotion: Introduction

Early Landmarks in the Biopsychological Investigation of Emotion

Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System

Emotions and Facial Expression

17.2 Fear, Defense, and Aggression

Types of Aggressive and Defensive Behaviors

Aggression and Testosterone

17.3 Neural Mechanisms of Fear Conditioning

Amygdala and Fear Conditioning

Contextual Fear Conditioning and the Hippocampus

Amygdala Complex and Fear Conditioning

17.4 Stress and Health

The Stress Response

Animal Models of Stress

Psychosomatic Disorders: The Case of Gastric Ulcers

Psychoneuroimmunology: Stress, the Immune System, and the Brain

Early Experience of Stress

Stress and the Hippocampus

17.5 Brain Mechanisms of Human Emotion

Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotion

Amygdala and Human Emotion

Medial Prefrontal Lobes and Human Emotion

Lateralization of Emotion

Individual Differences in the Neural Mechanisms of Emotion

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms


Chapter 18

Biopsychology of Psychiatric Disorders: The Brain Unhinged

18.1 Schizophrenia

What Is Schizophrenia?

Causal Factors in Schizophrenia

Discovery of the First Antischizophrenic Drugs

Dopamine Theory of Schizophrenia

Neural Basis of Schizophrenia: Limitations of the Dopamine Theory

18.2 Affective Disorders: Depression and Mania

Major Categories of Affective Disorders

Causal Factors in Affective Disorder.

Discovery of Antidepressant Drugs

Brain Pathology and Affective Disorders

Theories of Depression

Treatment of Depression with Brain Stimulation

18.3 Anxiety Disorders

Five Classes of Anxiety Disorders

Etiology of Anxiety Disorders

Pharmacological Treatment of Anxiety Disorders

Animal Models of Anxiety

Neural Bases of Anxiety Disorders

18.4 Tourette Syndrome

What Is Tourette Syndrome?

Neuropathology of Tourette Syndrome

Treatment of Tourette Syndrome

18.5 Clinical Trials: Development of New Psychotherapeutic Drugs

Clinical Trials: The Three Phases

Controversial Aspects of Clinical Trials

Effectiveness of Clinical Trials

Conclusion

Themes Revisited

Think about It

Sample study questions

Key Terms

Additional information

GOR008261607
Biopsychology: International Edition by John P. J. Pinel
John P. J. Pinel
Used - Like New
Paperback
Pearson Education (US)
2010-10-22
608
0205030998
9780205030996
N/A
Book picture is for illustrative purposes only, actual binding, cover or edition may vary.
The book has been read, but looks new. The book cover has no visible wear, and the dust jacket is included if applicable. No missing or damaged pages, no tears, possible very minimal creasing, no underlining or highlighting of text, and no writing in the margins.