This book is intended for geologists who are increas- kinds of image data and their interpretation. The ingly required to interpret data in image form about opportunities are so great that any geologist without a basic knowledge of the possibilities is ill-equipped to the Earth's surface and subsurface. It aims to go perform as efficiently as an employer might justifiably further than a mere familiarisation with the subject, expect. and sets out to provide the background to the most advanced remotely sensed data and the kinds of Space considerations have precluded the incorpor- information that can be extracted from them. Because ation of the sort of in-depth practical exercises that obtaining suitable images is becoming increasingly would be convenient and useful for many academics dependent on the interaction between geologists and trying to teach their students the practicalities of specialists in image processing, it contains a simplified remote sensing. The many halftone and colour images account of most of the methods used in computer- in the book contain far more information than is based digital image handling. In that respect it pro- described in their captions - they offer the possibility vides enough background for a geologist to begin for the instructor to design practical exercises. training in digital-image processing, if necessary. As it I cannot demand that the book is read from cover to presupposes a reasonable background in geology and cover, and not used merely as a reference text.
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One Electromagnetic radiation and materials.- 1.1 The nature of electromagnetic radiation.- 1.2 The generation of electromagnetic radiation.- 1.3 Matter and electromagnetic radiation.- 1.3.1 The effect of the atmosphere.- 1.3.2 Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with rocks and minerals.- 1.3.3 Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with vegetation.- 1.3.4 Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with water.- Two Human vision.- 2.1 The eye and visual cortex.- 2.2 Spatial resolving power.- 2.3 Seeing brightness.- 2.4 Producing, seeing and representing colour.- 2.5 Perception of depth.- 2.6 Dangerous illusions.- Three How data are collected.- 3.1 Photography.- 3.2 Vidicon cameras.- 3.3 Line-scanning systems.- 3.4 Pushbroom systems.- 3.5 Microwave imaging systems.- 3.6 Gamma-ray spectrometer.- 3.7 Non-imaging systems.- 3.7.1 Laser systems.- 3.7.2 Fraunhofer-line discrimination.- 3.7.3 Spectroradiometers.- 3.7.4 Radar scatterometers.- 3.8 Platforms.- 3.8.1 Aircraft.- 3.8.2 Manned spacecraft.- 3.8.3 Unmanned spacecraft.- Four Photogeology.- 4.1 Destructional landforms.- 4.1.1 Landforms and drainage.- 4.1.2 Glacially eroded landforms.- 4.1.3 Other destructional landforms.- 4.2 The recognition of rock types.- 4.2.1 Sedimentary rocks.- 4.2.2 Igneous rocks.- 4.2.3 Metamorphic rock types.- 4.3 Stratigraphic relationships.- 4.3.1 Dip and strike.- 4.3.2 Superposition.- 4.3.3 Unconformities.- 4.3.4 Cross-cutting relationships.- 4.4 Structural relationships.- 4.4.1 Faults, lineaments and arcuate features.- 4.4.2 Shear belts.- 4.4.3 Folds.- 4.5 Superficial deposits and constructional landforms.- 4.5.1 Volcanic landforms.- 4.5.2 Fluviatile and lacustrine landforms.- 4.5.3 Aeolian landforms.- 4.5.4 Glacial landforms.- Five Digital processing of images in the visible and near-infrared.- 5.1 The image histogram.- 5.2 Contrast stretching.- 5.3 Spatial-frequency filtering.- 5.4 Principal component analysis.- 5.5 Band ratioing.- 5.6 Pattern recognition.- 5.6.1 Spectral pattern recognition.- 5.6.2 Spatial pattern recognition.- 5.6.3 Change detection.- 5.7 Alternative colour spaces.- Six Thermal images.- 6.1 What a thermal image shows.- 6.2 Qualitative interpretation of thermal images.- 6.2.1 Grey-tone thermal infrared images.- 6.2.2 The use of thermal data in false-colour images.- 6.3 Semi-quantitative analysis.- 6.3.1 Thermal inertia estimates.- 6.3.2 Thermal data in classification.- 6.4 Multispectral thermal data.- Seven Radar remote sensing.- 7.1 Interactions between radar and surface materials.- 7.1.1 Complex dielectric constant.- 7.1.2 Roughness.- 7.1.3 Polarisation.- 7.2 Interpretation of radar images.- 7.2.1 Geological features on radar images.- 7.2.2 Varying look direction.- 7.2.3 Varying depression angle.- 7.2.4 Stereoscopic radar images.- 7.2.5 Multi-frequency radar.- 7.2.6 Multi-polarisation radar.- 7.2.7 Digital processing of radar images.- 7.2.8 Radar combined with other data.- Eight Geographic information systems.- 8.1 The format of geographic information systems.- 8.2 Handling digital geographic information system data.- 8.3 Uses of geographic information systems in geology.- 8.3.1 Analysis of single data planes in raster format.- 8.3.2 Analysis of multiple data planes in raster format.- 8.3.3 Uses of topographic data in raster format.- 8.3.4 Geochemical data.- 8.3.5 Synergistic interpretation of geographic information systems.- Appendix One Stereometry.- Appendix Two Image correction.- A2.1 Geometric rectification.- A2.2 Replacing dropped lines.- A2.3 Destriping.- A2.4 Removal of random noise.- A2.5 Scan-line offsets.- Appendix Three Sources of remotely sensed images.- A3.1 Aerial and satellite photographs.- A3.2 Digital images in the visible and infrared.- A3.3 Radar image data.- A3.4 Raster-and grid-format non-image data.- A3.5 Useful documents.- Further reading.
Image Interpretation in Geology by S. Drury
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Kluwer Academic Publishers Group
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