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Cloud Computing By Thomas Erl

Cloud Computing
by Thomas Erl

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Cloud Computing Summary

Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture by Thomas Erl

Clouds are distributed technology platforms that leverage sophisticated technology innovations to provide highly scalable and resilient environments that can be remotely utilized by organizations in a multitude of powerful ways. To successfully build upon, integrate with, or even create a cloud environment requires an understanding of its common inner mechanics, architectural layers, and models, as well as an understanding of the business and economic factors that result from the adoption and real-world use of cloud-based services.

In Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture, Thomas Erl, one of the world's top-selling IT authors, teams up with cloud computing experts and researchers to break down proven and mature cloud computing technologies and practices into a series of well-defined concepts, models, technology mechanisms, and technology architectures, all from an industry-centric and vendor-neutral point of view. In doing so, the book establishes concrete, academic coverage with a focus on structure, clarity, and well-defined building blocks for mainstream cloud computing platforms and solutions.

Subsequent to technology-centric coverage, the book proceeds to establish business-centric models and metrics that allow for the financial assessment of cloud-based IT resources and their comparison to those hosted on traditional IT enterprise premises. Also provided are templates and formulas for calculating SLA-related quality-of-service values and numerous explorations of the SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS delivery models.

With more than 260 figures, 29 architectural models, and 20 mechanisms, this indispensable guide provides a comprehensive education of cloud computing essentials that will never leave your side.

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Cloud Computing Reviews

"Cloud computing, more than most disciplines in IT, suffers from too much talk and not enough practice. Thomas Erl has written a timely book that condenses the theory and buttresses it with real-world examples that demystify this important technology. An important guidebook for your journey into the cloud."
--Scott Morrison, Chief Technology Officer, Layer 7 Technologies

"An excellent, extremely well-written, lucid book that provides a comprehensive picture of cloud computing, covering multiple dimensions of the subject. The case studies presented in the book provide a real-world, practical perspective on leveraging cloud computing in an organization. The book covers a wide range of topics, from technology aspects to the business value provided by cloud computing. This is the best, most comprehensive book on the subject--a must-read for any cloud computing practitioner or anyone who wants to get an in-depth picture of cloud computing concepts and practical implementation."
--Suzanne D'Souza, SOA/BPM Practice Lead, KBACE Technologies

"This book offers a thorough and detailed description of cloud computing concepts, architectures, and technologies. It serves as a great reference for both newcomers and experts and is a must-read for any IT professional interested in cloud computing."
--Andre Tost, Senior Technical Staff Member, IBM Software Group

"This is a great book on the topic of cloud computing. It is impressive how the content spans from taxonomy, technology, and architectural concepts to important business considerations for cloud adoption. It really does provide a holistic view to this technology paradigm."
--Kapil Bakshi, Architecture and Strategy, Cisco Systems Inc.

"I have read every book written by Thomas Erl and Cloud Computing is another excellent publication and demonstration of Thomas Erl's rare ability to take the most complex topics and provide critical core concepts and technical information in a logical and understandable way."
--Melanie A. Allison, Principal, Healthcare Technology Practice, Integrated Consulting Services

"Companies looking to migrate applications or infrastructure to the cloud are often misled by buzzwords and industry hype. This work cuts through the hype and provides a detailed look, from investigation to contract to implementation to termination, at what it takes for an organization to engage with cloud service providers. This book really lays out the benefits and struggles with getting a company to an IaaS, PaaS, or SaaS solution."
--Kevin Davis, Ph.D., Solutions Architect

"Thomas, in his own distinct and erudite style, provides a comprehensive and a definitive book on cloud computing. Just like his previous masterpiece, Service-Oriented Architecture: Concepts, Technology, and Design, this book is sure to engage CxOs, cloud architects, and the developer community involved in delivering software assets on the cloud. Thomas and his authoring team have taken great pains in providing great clarity and detail in documenting cloud architectures, cloud delivery models, cloud governance, and economics of cloud, without forgetting to explain the core of cloud computing that revolves around Internet architecture and virtualization. As a reviewer for this outstanding book, I must admit I have learned quite a lot while reviewing the material. A 'must have' book that should adorn everybody's desk!"
--Vijay Srinivasan, Chief Architect - Technology, Cognizant Technology Solutions

"This book provides comprehensive and descriptive vendor-neutral coverage of cloud computing technology, from both technical and business aspects. It provides a deep-down analysis of cloud architectures and mechanisms that capture the real-world moving parts of cloud platforms. Business aspects are elaborated on to give readers a broader perspective on choosing and defining basic cloud computing business models. Thomas Erl's Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture is an excellent source of knowledge of fundamental and in-depth coverage of cloud computing."
--Masykur Marhendra Sukmanegara, Communication Media & Technology, Consulting Workforce Accenture

"The richness and depth of the topics discussed are incredibly impressive. The depth and breadth of the subject matter are such that a reader could become an expert in a short amount of time."
--Jamie Ryan, Solutions Architect, Layer 7 Technologies

"Demystification, rationalization, and structuring of implementation approaches have always been strong parts in each and every one of Thomas Erl's books. This book is no exception. It provides the definitive, essential coverage of cloud computing and, most importantly, presents this content in a very comprehensive manner. Best of all, this book follows the conventions of the previous service technology series titles, making it read like a natural extension of the library. I strongly believe that this will be another bestseller from one of the top-selling IT authors of the past decade."
--Sergey Popov, Senior Enterprise Architect SOA/Security, Liberty Global International

"A must-read for anyone involved in cloud design and decision making! This insightful book provides in-depth, objective, vendor-neutral coverage of cloud computing concepts, architecture models, and technologies. It will prove very valuable to anyone who needs to gain a solid understanding of how cloud environments work and how to design and migrate solutions to clouds."
--Gijs in 't Veld, Chief Architect, Motion10

"A reference book covering a wide range of aspects related to cloud providers and cloud consumers. If you would like to provide or consume a cloud service and need to know how, this is your book. The book has a clear structure to facilitate a good understanding of the various concepts of cloud."
--Roger Stoffers, Solution Architect

"Cloud computing has been around for a few years, yet there is still a lot of confusion around the term and what it can bring to developers and deployers alike. This book is a great way of finding out what's behind the cloud, and not in an abstract or high-level manner: It dives into all of the details that you'd need to know in order to plan for developing applications on cloud and what to look for when using applications or services hosted on a cloud. There are very few books that manage to capture this level of detail about the evolving cloud paradigm as this one does. It's a must for architects and developers alike."
--Dr. Mark Little, Vice President, Red Hat

"This book provides a comprehensive exploration of the concepts and mechanics behind clouds. It's written for anyone interested in delving into the details of how cloud environments function, how they are architected, and how they can impact business. This is the book for any organization seriously considering adopting cloud computing. It will pave the way to establishing your cloud computing roadmap."
--Damian Maschek, SOA Architect, Deutsche Bahn

"One of the best books on cloud computing I have ever read. It is complete yet vendor technology neutral and successfully explains the major concepts in a well-structured and disciplined way. It goes through all the definitions and provides many hints for organizations or professionals who are approaching and/or assessing cloud solutions. This book gives a complete list of topics playing fundamental roles in the cloud computing discipline. It goes through a full list of definitions very clearly stated. Diagrams are simple to understand and self-contained. Readers with different skill sets, expertise, and backgrounds will be able to understand the concepts seamlessly."
--Antonio Bruno, Infrastructure and Estate Manager, UBS AG

"Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture is a comprehensive book that focuses on what cloud computing is really all about.... This book will become the foundation on which many organizations will build successful cloud adoption projects. It is a must-read reference for both IT infrastructure and application architects interested in cloud computing or involved in cloud adoption projects. It contains extremely useful and comprehensive information for those who need to build cloud-based architectures or need to explain it to customers thinking about adopting cloud computing technology in their organization."
--Johan Kumps, SOA Architect, RealDolmen

"This book defines the basic terminology and patterns for the topic--a useful reference for the cloud practitioner. Concepts from multitenancy to hypervisor are presented in a succinct and clear manner. The underlying case studies provide wonderful real-worldness."
--Dr. Thomas Rischbeck, Principal Architect, ipt

"The book provides a good foundation to cloud services and issues in cloud service design. Chapters highlight key issues that need to be considered in learning how to think in cloud technology terms; this is highly important in today's business and technology environments where cloud computing plays a central role in connecting user services with virtualized resources and applications."
--Mark Skilton, Director, Office of Strategy and Technology, Global Infrastructure Services, Capgemini

"The book is well organized and covers basic concepts, technologies, and business models about cloud computing. It defines and explains a comprehensive list of terminologies and glossaries about cloud computing so cloud computing experts can speak and communicate with the same set of standardized language. The book is easy to understand and consistent with early published books from Thomas Erl.... It is a must-read for both beginners and experienced professionals."
--Jian "Jeff" Zhong, Chief Technology Officer (Acting) and Chief Architect for SOA and Cloud Computing, Futrend Technology Inc.

"Students of the related specialties can fulfill their educational process with very easily understood materials that are broadly illustrated and clearly described. Professors of different disciplines, from business analysis to IT implementation--even legal and financial monitoring--can use the book as an on-table lecturing manual. IT specialists of all ranks and fields of application will find the book as a practical and useful support for sketching solutions unbound to any particular vendor or brand."
--Alexander Gromoff, Director of Science & Education, Center of Information Control Technologies, Chairman of BPM Chair in Business Informatics Department, National Research University "Higher School of Economics"

"Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture is a comprehensive compendium of all the relevant information about the transformative cloud technology. Erl's latest title concisely and clearly illustrates the origins and positioning of the cloud paradigm as the next-generation computing model. All the chapters are carefully written and arranged in an easy-to-understand manner. This book will be immeasurably beneficial for business and IT professionals. It is set to shake up and help organize the world of cloud computing."
--Pethuru Raj, Ph.D., Enterprise Architecture Consultant, Wipro

"A cloud computing book that will stand out and survive the test of time, even in one of the fastest evolving areas of technology. This book does a great job breaking down the high level of complexity of cloud computing into easy-to-understand pieces. It goes beyond the basic, often repeated, explanations. It examines the fundamental concepts and the components, as well as the mechanisms and architectures that make up cloud computing environments. The approach gradually builds the reader's understanding from the ground up.

"In a rapidly evolving area like cloud computing, it's easy to focus on details and miss the big picture. The focus on concepts and architectural models instead of vendor-specific details allows readers to quickly gain essential knowledge of complex topics. The concepts come together in the last part of the book, which should be required reading for any decision maker evaluating when and how to start a transition to cloud computing. Its thorough, comprehensive coverage of fundamentals and advanced topics makes the book a valuable resource to keep on your desk or your eBook reader, regardless if you're new to the topic or you already have cloud experience.

"I highly recommend the book to those looking to implement or evaluate cloud environments, or simply looking to educate themselves in a field that will shape IT over the next decade."
--Christoph Schittko, Principal Technology Strategist & Cloud Solution Director, Microsoft

"Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture is an excellent resource for IT professionals and managers who want to learn and understand cloud computing, and who need to select or build cloud systems and solutions. It lays the foundation for cloud concepts, models, technologies, and mechanisms. As the book is vendor-neutral, it will remain valid for many years. We will recommend this book to Oracle customers, partners, and users for their journey toward cloud computing. This book has the potential to become the basis for a cloud computing manifesto, comparable to what was accomplished with the SOA manifesto."
--Jurgen Kress, Fusion Middleware Partner Adoption, Oracle EMEA

About Thomas Erl

Thomas Erl is a top-selling IT author, founder of Arcitura Education, editor of the Service Technology Magazine and series editor of the Prentice Hall Service Technology Series from Thomas Erl. With more than 175,000 copies in print world-wide, his books have become international bestsellers and have been formally endorsed by senior members of major IT organizations, such as IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, Intel, Accenture, IEEE, HL7, MITRE, SAP, CISCO, HP, and many others. As CEO of Arcitura Education Inc. and in cooperation with and, Thomas has led the development of curricula for the internationally recognized Cloud Certified Professional (CCP) and SOA Certified Professional (SOACP) accreditation programs, which have established a series of formal, vendor-neutral industry certifications obtained by thousands of IT professionals around the world. Thomas has toured over 20 countries as a speaker and instructor and regularly participates in international conferences, including Service Technology Symposium and Gartner events. More than 100 articles and interviews by Thomas have been published in numerous publications, including The Wall Street Journal and CIO Magazine.

Dr. Zaigham Mahmood is a published author of six books, four of which are dedicated to cloud computing. He acts as a technology consultant at Debesis Education UK and a Researcher at the University of Derby, UK. He further holds positions as a foreign professor and professor extraordinaire with international educational institutions. Professor Mahmood is a certified cloud trainer and a regular speaker at the International SOA, Cloud + Service Technology Symposium, and he has published more than 100 articles. His specialized areas of research include distributed computing, project management, and e-government.

Professor Ricardo Puttini has 15 years of field experience as a senior IT consultant at major government organizations in Brazil. He has taught several undergraduate and graduate-level courses in service orientation, service-oriented architecture, and cloud computing. Ricardo was the general chair of the 4th International SOA Symposium and 3rd International Cloud Symposium that was held in the spring of 2011. He holds a Ph.D. in Communication Networks (2004) from the University of Brasilia, where he has taught in the Electrical Engineering department since 1998. Ricardo spent 18 months at the L'Ecole Superieure d'Electricite (Supelec) in Rennes, France, during his Ph.D., where he started researching distributed system architecture and security.

Table of Contents

Foreword xxix

Acknowledgments xxxiii

CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1

1.1 Objectives of This Book 3

1.2 What This Book Does Not Cover 4

1.3 Who This Book Is For 4

1.4 How This Book Is Organized 4

1.5 Conventions 9

Symbols and Figures 9

Summary of Key Points 9

1.6 Additional Information 9

Updates, Errata, and Resources ( 9

Referenced Specifications ( 10

The Service Technology Magazine ( 10

International Service Technology Symposium ( 10

What Is Cloud? ( 10

What Is REST? ( 10

Cloud Computing Design Patterns ( 10

Service-Orientation ( 11 Certified Cloud (CCP) Professional ( 11 SOA Certified (SOACP) Professional ( 11

Notification Service 11

CHAPTER 2: Case Study Background 13

2.1 Case Study #1: ATN 14

Technical Infrastructure and Environment 14

Business Goals and New Strategy 15

Roadmap and Implementation Strategy 15

2.2 Case Study #2: DTGOV 16

Technical Infrastructure and Environment 17

Business Goals and New Strategy 18

Roadmap and Implementation Strategy 19

2.3 Case Study #3: Innovartus Technologies Inc 20

Technical Infrastructure and Environment 20

Business Goals and Strategy 20

Roadmap and Implementation Strategy 21


CHAPTER 3: Understanding Cloud Computing 25

3.1 Origins and Influences 26

A Brief History 26

Definitions 27

Business Drivers 28

Capacity Planning 28

Cost Reduction 29

Organizational Agility 30

Technology Innovations 30

Clustering 31

Grid Computing 31

Virtualization 32

Technology Innovations vs. Enabling Technologies 32

3.2 Basic Concepts and Terminology 33

Cloud 33

IT Resource 34

On-Premise 36

Cloud Consumers and Cloud Providers 36

Scaling 37

Horizontal Scaling 37

Vertical Scaling 37

Cloud Service 38

Cloud Service Consumer 40

3.3 Goals and Benefits 40

Reduced Investments and Proportional Costs 41

Increased Scalability 42

Increased Availability and Reliability 43

3.4 Risks and Challenges 45

Increased Security Vulnerabilities 45

Reduced Operational Governance Control 45

Limited Portability Between Cloud Providers 47

Multi-Regional Compliance and Legal Issues 48

CHAPTER 4: Fundamental Concepts and Models 51

4.1 Roles and Boundaries 52

Cloud Provider 52

Cloud Consumer 52

Cloud Service Owner 53

Cloud Resource Administrator 54

Additional Roles 56

Organizational Boundary 56

Trust Boundary 57

4.2 Cloud Characteristics 58

On-Demand Usage 59

Ubiquitous Access 59

Multitenancy (and Resource Pooling) 59

Elasticity 61

Measured Usage 61

Resiliency 61

4.3 Cloud Delivery Models 63

Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) 64

Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) 65

Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) 66

Comparing Cloud Delivery Models 67

Combining Cloud Delivery Models 69

IaaS + PaaS 69

IaaS + PaaS + SaaS 72

4.4 Cloud Deployment Models 73

Public Clouds 73

Community Clouds 74

Private Clouds 75

Hybrid Clouds 77

Other Cloud Deployment Models 78

CHAPTER 5: Cloud-Enabling Technology 79

5.1 Broadband Networks and Internet Architecture 80

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 80

Connectionless Packet Switching (Datagram Networks) 83

Router-Based Interconnectivity 83

Physical Network 84

Transport Layer Protocol 84

Application Layer Protocol 85

Technical and Business Considerations 85

Connectivity Issues 85

Network Bandwidth and Latency Issues 88

Cloud Carrier and Cloud Provider Selection 89

5.2 Data Center Technology 90

Virtualization 90

Standardization and Modularity 90

Automation 91

Remote Operation and Management 92

High Availability 92

Security-Aware Design, Operation, and Management 92

Facilities 92

Computing Hardware 93

Storage Hardware 93

Network Hardware 95

Carrier and External Networks Interconnection 95

Web-Tier Load Balancing and Acceleration 95

LAN Fabric 95

SAN Fabric 95

NAS Gateways 95

Other Considerations 96

5.3 Virtualization Technology 97

Hardware Independence 98

Server Consolidation 98

Resource Replication 98

Operating System-Based Virtualization 99

Hardware-Based Virtualization 101

Virtualization Management 102

Other Considerations 102

5.4 Web Technology 103

Basic Web Technology 104

Web Applications 104

5.5 Multitenant Technology 106

5.6 Service Technology 108

Web Services 109

REST Services 110

Service Agents 111

Service Middleware 112

5.7 Case Study Example 113

CHAPTER 6: Fundamental Cloud Security 117

6.1 Basic Terms and Concepts 118

Confidentiality 118

Integrity 119

Authenticity 119

Availability 119

Threat 120

Vulnerability 120

Risk 120

Security Controls 120

Security Mechanisms 121

Security Policies 121

6.2 Threat Agents 121

Anonymous Attacker 122

Malicious Service Agent 123

Trusted Attacker 123

Malicious Insider 123

6.3 Cloud Security Threats 124

Traffic Eavesdropping 124

Malicious Intermediary 124

Denial of Service 126

Insufficient Authorization 127

Virtualization Attack 127

Overlapping Trust Boundaries 129

6.4 Additional Considerations 131

Flawed Implementations 131

Security Policy Disparity 132

Contracts 132

Risk Management 133

6.5 Case Study Example 135


CHAPTER 7: Cloud Infrastructure Mechanisms 139

7.1 Logical Network Perimeter 140

Case Study Example 142

7.2 Virtual Server 144

Case Study Example 145

7.3 Cloud Storage Device 149

Cloud Storage Levels 149

Network Storage Interfaces 150

Object Storage Interfaces 151

Database Storage Interfaces 151

Relational Data Storage 151

Non-Relational Data Storage 152

Case Study Example 152

7.4 Cloud Usage Monitor 155

Monitoring Agent 155

Resource Agent 155

Polling Agent 157

Case Study Example 157

7.5 Resource Replication 161

Case Study Example 162

7.6 Ready-Made Environment 166

Case Study Example 167

CHAPTER 8: Specialized Cloud Mechanisms 169

8.1 Automated Scaling Listener 170

Case Study Example 172

8.2 Load Balancer 176

Case Study Example 177

8.3 SLA Monitor 178

Case Study Example 180

SLA Monitor Polling Agent 180

SLA Monitoring Agent 180

8.4 Pay-Per-Use Monitor 184

Case Study Example 187

8.5 Audit Monitor 189

Case Study Example 189

8.6 Failover System 191

Active-Active 191

Active-Passive 194

Case Study Example 196

8.7 Hypervisor 200

Case Study Example 201

8.8 Resource Cluster 203

Case Study Example 206

8.9 Multi-Device Broker 208

Case Study Example 209

8.10 State Management Database 210

Case Study Example 211

CHAPTER 9: Cloud Management Mechanisms 213

9.1 Remote Administration System 214

Case Study Example 219

9.2 Resource Management System 219

Case Study Example 221

9.3 SLA Management System 222

Case Study Example 224

9.4 Billing Management System 225

Case Study Example 227

CHAPTER 10: Cloud Security Mechanisms 229

10.1 Encryption 230

Symmetric Encryption 231

Asymmetric Encryption 231

Case Study Example 233

10.2 Hashing 234

Case Study Example 235

10.3 Digital Signature 236

Case Study Example 238

10.4 Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) 240

Case Study Example 242

10.5 Identity and Access Management (IAM) 243

Case Study Example 244

10.6 Single Sign-On (SSO) 244

Case Study Example 246

10.7 Cloud-Based Security Groups 247

Case Study Example 249

10.8 Hardened Virtual Server Images 251

Case Study Example 252


CHAPTER 11: Fundamental Cloud Architectures 255

11.1 Workload Distribution Architecture 256

11.2 Resource Pooling Architecture 257

11.3 Dynamic Scalability Architecture 262

11.4 Elastic Resource Capacity Architecture 265

11.5 Service Load Balancing Architecture 268

11.6 Cloud Bursting Architecture 271

11.7 Elastic Disk Provisioning Architecture 272

11.8 Redundant Storage Architecture 275

11.9 Case Study Example 277

CHAPTER 12: Advanced Cloud Architectures 281

12.1 Hypervisor Clustering Architecture 282

12.2 Load Balanced Virtual Server Instances Architecture 288

12.3 Non-Disruptive Service Relocation Architecture 293

12.4 Zero Downtime Architecture 298

12.5 Cloud Balancing Architecture 299

12.6 Resource Reservation Architecture 301

12.7 Dynamic Failure Detection and Recovery Architecture 306

12.8 Bare-Metal Provisioning Architecture 309

12.9 Rapid Provisioning Architecture 312

12.10 Storage Workload Management Architecture 315

12.11 Case Study Example 321

CHAPTER 13: Specialized Cloud Architectures 323

13.1 Direct I/O Access Architecture 324

13.2 Direct LUN Access Architecture 326

13.3 Dynamic Data Normalization Architecture 329

13.4 Elastic Network Capacity Architecture 330

13.5 Cross-Storage Device Vertical Tiering Architecture 332

13.6 Intra-Storage Device Vertical Data Tiering Architecture 337

13.7 Load Balanced Virtual Switches Architecture 340

13.8 Multipath Resource Access Architecture 342

13.9 Persistent Virtual Network Configuration Architecture 344

13.10 Redundant Physical Connection for Virtual Servers Architecture 347

13.11 Storage Maintenance Window Architecture 350


CHAPTER 14: Cloud Delivery Model Considerations 359

14.1 Cloud Delivery Models: The Cloud Provider Perspective 360

Building IaaS Environments 360

Data Centers 361

Scalability and Reliability 363

Monitoring 363

Security 364

Equipping PaaS Environments 364

Scalability and Reliability 365

Monitoring 367

Security 367

Optimizing SaaS Environments 367

Security 370

14.2 Cloud Delivery Models: The Cloud Consumer Perspective 370

Working with IaaS Environments 370

IT Resource Provisioning Considerations 372

Working with PaaS Environments 373

IT Resource Provisioning Considerations 373

Working with SaaS Services 374

14.3 Case Study Example 375

CHAPTER 15: Cost Metrics and Pricing Models 379

15.1 Business Cost Metrics 380

Up-Front and On-Going Costs 380

Additional Costs 381

Case Study Example 382

Product Catalog Browser 382

On-Premise Up-Front Costs 382

On-Premise On-Going Costs 383

Cloud-Based Up-Front Costs 383

Cloud-Based On-Going Costs 383

Client Database 385

On-Premise Up-Front Costs 385

On-Premise On-Going Costs 385

Cloud-Based Up-Front Costs 385

Cloud-Based On-Going Costs 385

15.2 Cloud Usage Cost Metrics 387

Network Usage 387

Inbound Network Usage Metric 387

Outbound Network Usage Metric 388

Intra-Cloud WAN Usage Metric 388

Server Usage 389

On-Demand Virtual Machine Instance Allocation Metric 389

Reserved Virtual Machine Instance Allocation Metric 389

Cloud Storage Device Usage 390

On-Demand Storage Space Allocation Metric 390

I/O Data Transferred Metric 390

Cloud Service Usage 390

Application Subscription Duration Metric 390

Number of Nominated Users Metric 391

Number of Transactions Users Metric 391

15.3 Cost Management Considerations 391

Pricing Models 393

Additional Considerations 395

Case Study Example 396

Virtual Server On-Demand Instance Allocation 397

Virtual Server Reserved Instance Allocation 399

Cloud Storage Device 401

WAN Traffic 401

CHAPTER 16: Service Quality Metrics and SLAs 403

16.1 Service Quality Metrics 404

Service Availability Metrics 405

Availability Rate Metric 405

Outage Duration Metric 406

Service Reliability Metrics 407

Mean-Time Between Failures (MTBF) Metric 407

Reliability Rate Metric 407

Service Performance Metrics 407

Network Capacity Metric 408

Storage Device Capacity Metric 408

Server Capacity Metric 408

Web Application Capacity Metric 408

Instance Starting Time Metric 409

Response Time Metric 409

Completion Time Metric 409

Service Scalability Metrics 409

Storage Scalability (Horizontal) Metric 410

Server Scalability (Horizontal) Metric 410

Server Scalability (Vertical) Metric 410

Service Resiliency Metrics 411

Mean-Time to Switchover (MTSO) Metric 411

Mean-Time System Recovery (MTSR) Metric 412

16.2 Case Study Example 412

16.3 SLA Guidelines 413

16.4 Case Study Example 416

Scope and Applicability 416

Service Quality Guarantees 416

Definitions 417

Usage of Financial Credits 417

SLA Exclusions 418


Appendix A: Case Study Conclusions 421

A.1 ATN 422

A.2 DTGOV 422

A.3 Innovartus 424

Appendix B: Industry Standards Organizations 427

B.1 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 428

B.2 Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) 429

B.3 Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) 429

B.4 Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA) 430

B.5 Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) 430

B.6 The Open Group 430

B.7 Open Cloud Consortium (OCC) 431

B.8 European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) 431

B.9 Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) 431

B.10 Liberty Alliance 432

B.11 Open Grid Forum (OGF) 432

Appendix C: Mapping Mechanisms to Characteristics 433

Appendix D: Data Center Facilities (TIA-942) 437

D.1 Primary Rooms 438

Electrical Room 438

Mechanical Room 438

Storage and Staging 438

Offices, Operations Center, and Support 438

Telecommunications Entrance 438

Computer Room 439

D.2 Environmental Controls 440

External Electrical Power Provider Interconnection 440

Power Distribution 441

Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS) 441

Power Engine-Generator 441

D.3 Infrastructure Redundancy Summary 442

Appendix E: Emerging Technologies 443

E.1 Autonomic Computing 444

E.2 Grid Computing 445

Service Grids 446

Appendix F: Cloud Provisioning Contracts 449

F.1 Cloud Provisioning Contract Structure 450

Terms of Service 452

Service Usage Policy 452

Security and Privacy Policy 453

Warranties and Liabilities 455

Rights and Responsibilities 455

Termination and Renewal 456

Specifications and SLAs 456

Pricing and Billing 457

Other Issues 457

Legal and Compliance Issues 457

Auditability and Accountability 457

Changes in the Contract Terms and Conditions 457

F.2 Cloud Provider Selection Guidelines 458

Cloud Provider Viability 458

Appendix G: Cloud Business Case Template 461

G.1 Business Case Identification 462

G.2 Business Needs 462

G.3 Target Cloud Environment 463

G.4 Technical Issues 464

G.5 Economic Factors 464

About the Authors 465

About the Foreword Contributor 467

About the Contributors 469

Index 471

Additional information

Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture by Thomas Erl
Thomas Erl
Used - Very Good
Pearson Education (US)
Book picture is for illustrative purposes only, actual binding, cover or edition may vary.
This is a used book - there is no escaping the fact it has been read by someone else and it will show signs of wear and previous use. Overall we expect it to be in very good condition, but if you are not entirely satisfied please get in touch with us.