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Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-101 Official Cert Guide, Academic Edition By Wendell Odom

Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-101 Official Cert Guide, Academic Edition

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Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-101 Official Cert Guide, Academic Edition Summary

Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-101 Official Cert Guide, Academic Edition by Wendell Odom

CCNA ICND2 200-101 Official Cert Guide, Academic Edition, is a comprehensive textbook and study package for an intermediate-level networking course. This book has been completely revised to align to Cisco's new CCNA 200-101 ICND2 exam. Material is presented in a concise manner, focusing on increasing student's retention and recall of exam topics. The book is printed in four color, allowing students to benefit from carefully crafted figures that utilize color to convey concepts. Students will organize their study through the use of the consistent features in these chapters, including:

  • Foundation Topics - These sections make up the majority of the page count, explaining concepts, configurations, with emphasis on the theory and concepts, and with linking the theory to the meaning of the configuration commands.
  • Key Topics - Inside the Foundation Topics sections, every figure, table, or list that should absolutely be understood and remembered for the exam is noted with the words "Key Topic" in the margin. This tool allows the reader to quickly review the most important details in each chapter.
  • Chapter-ending Summaries - These bulleted lists provide a quick and concise review of the key topics covered in each chapter.
  • Chapter-ending Review Questions - Each chapter provides a set of multiple choice questions that help student's test their knowledge of the chapter concepts, including answers and full explanations.
  • Chapter-ending Exercises - Each chapter concludes with a series of exercises designed to help students increase their retention of the chapter content including key term reviews, key topic tables, command review exercises, and memory table exercises.
  • Part Reviews - This new edition includes a new part review feature that helps students consolidate their knowledge of concepts presented across multiple chapters. A new mind mapping exercise helps students build strong mental maps of concepts. A new exam bank of part review questions helps students test themselves with scenario-based questions that span multiple topics.

In addition to these powerful chapter learning, review, and practice features, this book also contains several other features that make it a truly effective and comprehensive study package, including:

  • A Getting Started chapter at the beginning of the book offer terrific advice for how to use the book features and build an effective study plan.
  • The DVD contains over 60 minutes of video mentoring from the author on challenging topics such as OSPF, EIGRP, EIGRP Metrics, PPP, and CHAP.
  • The book comes complete with the CCNA ICND2 Network Simulator Lite software, providing students with the opportunity to practice their hands-on command line interface skills with Cisco routers and switches. The 13 labs included for free with this product cover a range of EIGRP configuration and troubleshooting exercises.
  • The Pearson IT Certification Practice Test software that comes with the book includes 4 full ICND2 exams and 4 full CCNA exams, providing tons of opportunities to assess and practice. Including the book review questions and part review questions, the exam bank includes more than 500 unique practice questions.
  • A Final Preparation Chapter helps students review for final exams and prepare to take the official Cisco CCNA exams, if they want to achieve that certification.
  • A Study Plan Template is included on the DVD to help students organize their study time.

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About Wendell Odom

Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624, has been in the networking industry since 1981. He has worked as a network engineer, consultant, systems engineer, instructor, and course developer; he currently works writing and creating certification tools. He is the author of all the previous books in the Cisco Press CCNA Official Certification Guide series, as well as author of the CCNP ROUTE 642-902 Official Certification Guide, the QoS 642-642 Exam Certification Guide, and co-author of the CCIE Routing and Switch Official Certification Guide and several other titles. He is also a consultant for the CCNA 640-802 Network Simulator from Pearson and for a forthcoming replacement version of that product. He maintains study tools, links to his blogs, and other resources at

Table of Contents

Introduction xxvi

Getting Started 3

Part I: LAN Switching 9

Chapter 1 Spanning Tree Protocol Concepts 10

Foundation Topics 11

LAN Switching Review 11

LAN Switch Forwarding Logic 11

Switch Verification 12

Viewing the MAC Address Table 12

Determining the VLAN of a Frame 13

Verifying Trunks 15

Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D) 15

The Need for Spanning Tree 16

What IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Does 18

How Spanning Tree Works 19

The STP Bridge ID and Hello BPDU 20

Electing the Root Switch 21

Choosing Each Switch's Root Port 23

Choosing the Designated Port on Each LAN Segment 24

Influencing and Changing the STP Topology 25

Making Configuration Changes to Influence the STP Topology 25

Reacting to State Changes That Affect the STP Topology 26

How Switches React to Changes with STP 26

Changing Interface States with STP 28

Optional STP Features 29

EtherChannel 29

PortFast 30

BPDU Guard 30

Rapid STP (IEEE 802.1w) 31

Review Activities 32

Chapter 2 Spanning Tree Protocol Implementation 36

Foundation Topics 37

STP Configuration and Verification 37

Setting the STP Mode 37

Connecting STP Concepts to STP Configuration Options 38

Per-VLAN Configuration Settings 38

The Bridge ID and System ID Extension 39

Per-VLAN Port Costs 40

STP Configuration Option Summary 40

Verifying STP Operation 40

Configuring STP Port Costs 43

Configuring Priority to Influence the Root Election 45

Configuring PortFast and BPDU Guard 46

Configuring EtherChannel 47

Configuring a Manual EtherChannel 48

Configuring Dynamic EtherChannels 50

STP Troubleshooting 50

Determining the Root Switch 51

Determining the Root Port on Nonroot Switches 52

STP Tiebreakers When Choosing the Root Port 53

Suggestions for Attacking Root Port Problems on the Exam 54

Determining the Designated Port on Each LAN Segment 54

Suggestions for Attacking Designated Port Problems on the Exam 55

STP Convergence 56

Troubleshooting EtherChannel 56

Incorrect Options on the channel-group Command 57

Configuration Checks Before Adding Interfaces to EtherChannels 58

Review Activities 60

Chapter 3 Troubleshooting LAN Switching 64

Foundation Topics 65

Generalized Troubleshooting Methodologies 65

Analyzing and Predicting Normal Network Operation 65

Data Plane Analysis 66

Control Plane Analysis 67

Predicting Normal Operations: Summary of the Process 68

Problem Isolation 68

Root Cause Analysis 69

Real World Versus the Exams 70

Troubleshooting the LAN Switching Data Plane 70

An Overview of the Normal LAN Switch Forwarding Process 71

Step 1: Confirm the Network Diagrams Using CDP 72

Step 2: Isolate Interface Problems 73

Interface Status Codes and Reasons for Nonworking States 74

The notconnect State and Cabling Pinouts 75

Determining Switch Interface Speed and Duplex 76

Issues Related to Speed and Duplex 77

Step 3: Isolate Filtering and Port Security Problems 79

Step 4: Isolate VLAN and Trunking Problems 82

Ensuring That the Right Access Interfaces Are in the Right VLANs 83

Access VLANs Not Being Defined or Not Being Active 83

Identify Trunks and VLANs Forwarded on Those Trunks 84

Troubleshooting Examples and Exercises 86

Troubleshooting Example 1: Find Existing LAN Data Plane Problems 86

Step 1: Verify the Accuracy of the Diagram Using CDP 87

Step 2: Check for Interface Problems 88

Step 3: Check for Port Security Problems 90

Step 4: Check for VLAN and VLAN Trunk Problems 91

Troubleshooting Example 2: Predicting LAN Data Plane Behavior 94

PC1 ARP Request (Broadcast) 95

R1 ARP Reply (Unicast) 98

Review Activities 102

Part I Review 104

Part II: IP Version 4 Routing 109

Chapter 4 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Part I 110

Foundation Topics 111

Predicting Normal IPv4 Routing Behavior 111

Host IPv4 Routing Logic 111

Routing Logic Used by IPv4 Routers 112

IP Routing Logic on a Single Router 112

IP Routing from Host to Host 113

Building New Data Link Headers Using ARP Information 114

Problem Isolation Using the ping Command 115

Ping Command Basics 115

Strategies and Results When Testing with the ping Command 116

Testing Longer Routes from Near the Source of the Problem 117

Using Extended Ping to Test the Reverse Route 119

Testing LAN Neighbors with Standard Ping 121

Testing LAN Neighbors with Extended Ping 122

Testing WAN Neighbors with Standard Ping 122

Using Ping with Names and with IP Addresses 123

Problem Isolation Using the traceroute Command 124

traceroute Basics 124

How the traceroute Command Works 125

Standard and Extended traceroute 126

Using traceroute to Isolate the Problem to Two Routers 127

Review Activities 130

Chapter 5 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Part II 132

Foundation Topics 133

Problems Between the Host and the Default Router 133

Root Causes Based on a Host's IPv4 Settings 133

Ensure IPv4 Settings Correctly Match 133

Mismatched Masks Impact Route to Reach Subnet 134

Typical Root Causes of DNS Problems 136

Wrong Default Router IP Address Setting 137

Root Causes Based on the Default Router's Configuration 137

Mismatched VLAN Trunking Configuration with Router on a Stick 138

DHCP Relay Issues 140

Router LAN Interface and LAN Issues 141

Problems with Routing Packets Between Routers 143

IP Forwarding by Matching the Most Specific Route 143

Using show ip route and Subnet Math to Find the Best Route 144

Using show ip route address to Find the Best Route 145

show ip route Reference 145

Routing Problems Caused by Incorrect Addressing Plans 146

Recognizing When VLSM Is Used or Not 147

Overlaps When Not Using VLSM 147

Overlaps When Using VLSM 148

Configuring Overlapping VLSM Subnets 149

Router WAN Interface Status 150

Filtering Packets with Access Lists 151

Review Activities 153

Chapter 6 Creating Redundant First-Hop Routers 156

Foundation Topics 157

FHRP Concepts 157

The Need for Redundancy in Networks 157

The Need for a First Hop Redundancy Protocol 159

The Three Solutions for First-Hop Redundancy 160

HSRP Concepts 160

HSRP Failover 161

HSRP Load Balancing 162

GLBP Concepts 163

FHRP Configuration and Verification 164

Configuring and Verifying HSRP 164

Configuring and Verifying GLBP 167

Review Activities 170

Chapter 7 Virtual Private Networks 176

Foundation Topics 177

VPN Fundamentals 177

IPsec VPNs 179

SSL VPNs 181

GRE Tunnels 181

GRE Tunnel Concepts 182

Routing over GRE Tunnels 182

GRE Tunnels over the Unsecured Network 183

Configuring GRE Tunnels 185

Verifying a GRE Tunnel 187

Review Activities 190

Part II Review 194

Part III: IP Version 4 Routing Protocols 199

Chapter 8 Implementing OSPF for IPv4 200

Foundation Topics 201

OSPF Protocols and Operation 201

OSPF Overview 201

Becoming Neighbors and Exchanging the LSDB 202

Agreeing to Become Neighbors 202

Fully Exchanging LSAs with Neighbors 203

Maintaining Neighbors and the LSDB 204

Using Designated Routers on Ethernet Links 205

Scaling OSPF Using Areas 206

OSPF Areas 207

How Areas Reduce SPF Calculation Time 208

OSPF Area Design Advantages 209

Link-State Advertisements 209

Router LSAs Build Most of the Intra-Area Topology 210

Network LSAs Complete the Intra-Area Topology 211

LSAs in a Multi-Area Design 212

Calculating the Best Routes with SPF 214

Administrative Distance 215

OSPF Configuration and Verification 216

OSPFv2 Configuration Overview 216

Multi-Area OSPFv2 Configuration Example 217

Single-Area Configurations 218

Multi-Area Configuration 219

Verifying the Multi-Area Configuration 220

Verifying the Correct Areas on Each Interface on an ABR 221

Verifying Which Router Is DR and BDR 221

Verifying the Number and Type of LSAs 222

Verifying OSPF Routes 223

OSPF Metrics (Cost) 223

Setting the Cost Based on Interface Bandwidth 224

The Need for a Higher Reference Bandwidth 225

OSPF Load Balancing 225

Review Activities 226

Chapter 9 Understanding EIGRP Concepts 230

Foundation Topics 231

EIGRP and Distance Vector Routing Protocols 231

Introduction to EIGRP 231

Basic Distance Vector Routing Protocol Features 233

The Concept of a Distance and a Vector 233

Full Update Messages and Split Horizon 234

Route Poisoning 236

EIGRP as an Advanced DV Protocol 237

EIGRP Sends Partial Update Messages, As Needed 237

EIGRP Maintains Neighbor Status Using Hello 237

Summary of Interior Routing Protocol Features 238

EIGRP Concepts and Operation 239

EIGRP Neighbors 239

Exchanging EIGRP Topology Information 240

Calculating the Best Routes for the Routing Table 241

The EIGRP Metric Calculation 241

An Example of Calculated EIGRP Metrics 242

Caveats with Bandwidth on Serial Links 243

EIGRP Convergence 244

Feasible Distance and Reported Distance 244

EIGRP Successors and Feasible Successors 245

The Query and Reply Process 246

Review Activities 248

Chapter 10 Implementing EIGRP for IPv4 252

Foundation Topics 253

Core EIGRP Configuration and Verification 253

EIGRP Configuration 253

Configuring EIGRP Using a Wildcard Mask 255

Verifying EIGRP Core Features 255

Finding the Interfaces on Which EIGRP Is Enabled 256

Displaying EIGRP Neighbor Status 258

Displaying the IPv4 Routing Table 259

EIGRP Metrics, Successors, and Feasible Successors 260

Viewing the EIGRP Topology Table 261

Finding Successor Routes 262

Finding Feasible Successor Routes 263

Convergence Using the Feasible Successor Route 265

Examining the Metric Components 266

Other EIGRP Configuration Settings 267

Load Balancing Across Multiple EIGRP Routes 267

Tuning the EIGRP Metric Calculation 269

Autosummarization and Discontiguous Classful Networks 270

Automatic Summarization at the Boundary of a Classful Network 270

Discontiguous Classful Networks 271

Review Activities 273

Chapter 11 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing Protocols 278

Foundation Topics 279

Perspectives on Troubleshooting Routing Protocol Problems 279

Interfaces Enabled with a Routing Protocol 280

EIGRP Interface Troubleshooting 281

Examining Working EIGRP Interfaces 282

Examining the Problems with EIGRP Interfaces 284

OSPF Interface Troubleshooting 286

Neighbor Relationships 289

EIGRP Neighbor Verification Checks 290

EIGRP Neighbor Troubleshooting Example 291

OSPF Neighbor Troubleshooting 293

Finding Area Mismatches 294

Finding Duplicate OSPF Router IDs 295

Finding OSPF Hello and Dead Timer Mismatches 296

Other OSPF Issues 297

Mismatched OSPF Network Types 297

Mismatched MTU Settings 299

Review Activities 300

Part III Review 304

Part IV: Wide-Area Networks 309

Chapter 12 Implementing Point-to-Point WANs 310

Foundation Topics 311

Leased Line WANs with HDLC 311

Layer 1 Leased Lines 311

The Physical Components of a Leased Line 312

Leased Lines and the T-Carrier System 314

The Role of the CSU/DSU 315

Building a WAN Link in a Lab 315

Layer 2 Leased Lines with HDLC 316

Configuring HDLC 317

Leased-Line WANs with PPP 320

PPP Concepts 320

PPP Framing 321

PPP Control Protocols 321

PPP Authentication 322

Configuring PPP 323

CHAP Configuration and Verification 324

Troubleshooting Serial Links 325

Troubleshooting Layer 1 Problems 325

Troubleshooting Layer 2 Problems 326

Keepalive Failure 327

PAP and CHAP Authentication Failure 328

Troubleshooting Layer 3 Problems 329

Review Activities 331

Chapter 13 Understanding Frame Relay Concepts 336

Foundation Topics 337

Frame Relay Overview 337

Virtual Circuits 339

LMI and Encapsulation Types 340

Frame Relay Encapsulation and Framing 341

Frame Relay Addressing 342

Frame Relay Local Addressing 342

Frame Forwarding with One DLCI Field 343

Network Layer Addressing with Frame Relay 344

Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: One Subnet Containing All Frame Relay DTEs 345

Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: One Subnet Per VC 345

Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: Hybrid Approach 347

Review Activities 349

Chapter 14 Implementing Frame Relay 352

Foundation Topics 353

Frame Relay Configuration and Verification 353

Planning a Frame Relay Configuration 353

Configuring Using Physical Interfaces and One IP Subnet 354

Configuring the Encapsulation and LMI 356

Frame Relay Address Mapping 357

Inverse ARP 360

Static Frame Relay Mapping 360

Configuring Point-to-Point Subinterfaces 361

Verifying Point-to-Point Frame Relay 364

Configuring with Multipoint Subinterfaces 366

OSPF Issues on Frame Relay Multipoint and Physical Interfaces 368

Frame Relay Troubleshooting 369

A Suggested Frame Relay Troubleshooting Process 369

Layer 1 Issues on the Access Link (Step 1) 370

Layer 2 Issues on the Access Link (Step 2) 371

PVC Problems and Status (Step 3) 372

Find the Connected Subnet and Outgoing Interface (Steps 3a and 3b) 373

Find the PVCs Assigned to That Interface (Step 3c) 374

Determine Which PVC Is Used to Reach a Particular Neighbor (Step 3d) 375

PVC Status 375

Subinterface Status 377

Frame Relay Mapping Issues (Step 4) 377

End-to-End Encapsulation (Step 5) 378

Mismatched Subnet Numbers (Step 6) 379

Review Activities 380

Chapter 15 Identifying Other Types of WANs 386

Foundation Topics 387

Private WANs to Connect Enterprises 387

Leased Lines 387

Frame Relay 388

Ethernet WANs 389

MPLS 390

VSAT 391

Public WANs and Internet Access 392

Internet Access (WAN) Links 392

Dial Access with Modems and ISDN 393

Digital Subscriber Line 395

Cable Internet 396

Mobile Phone Access with 3G/4G 397

PPP over Ethernet 398

PPP over Ethernet Concepts 398

PPP over Ethernet Configuration 399

Review Activities 401

Part IV Review 404

Part V: IP Version 6 409

Chapter 16 Troubleshooting IPv6 Routing 410

Foundation Topics 411

Normal IPv6 Operation 411

Unicast IPv6 Addresses and IPv6 Subnetting 411

Assigning Addresses to Hosts 413

Stateful DHCPv6 413

Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 414

Router Address and Static Route Configuration 415

Configuring IPv6 Routing and Addresses on Routers 415

IPv6 Static Routes on Routers 416

Verifying IPv6 Connectivity 417

Verifying Connectivity from IPv6 Hosts 417

Verifying IPv6 from Routers 419

Troubleshooting IPv6 421

Pings from the Host Work Only in Some Cases 421

Pings Fail from a Host to Its Default Router 423

Problems Using Any Function That Requires DNS 424

Host Is Missing IPv6 Settings: Stateful DHCP Issues 424

Host Is Missing IPv6 Settings: SLAAC Issues 425

Traceroute Shows Some Hops, But Fails 427

Routing Looks Good, But Traceroute Still Fails 428

Review Activities 430

Chapter 17 Implementing OSPF for IPv6 434

Foundation Topics 435

OSPFv3 Configuration 435

OSPFv3 ICND1 Configuration Review 435

Example Multi-Area OSPFv3 Configuration 435

Single Area Configuration on the Three Internal Routers 436

Adding Multi-Area Configuration on the Area Border Router 438

Other OSPFv3 Configuration Settings 439

Setting OSPFv3 Interface Cost to Influence Route Selection 439

OSPF Load Balancing 440

Injecting Default Routes 440

OSPF Concepts, Verification, and Troubleshooting 441

OSPFv3 Interfaces 443

Verifying OSPFv3 Interfaces 443

Troubleshooting OSPFv3 Interfaces 443

OSPFv3 Neighbors 445

Verifying OSPFv3 Neighbors 445

Troubleshooting OSPFv3 Neighbors 446

OSPFv3 LSDB and LSAs 448

Verifying OSPFv3 LSAs 448

Troubleshooting OSPFv3 LSAs 450

OSPFv3 Metrics and IPv6 Routes 451

Verifying OSPFv3 Interface Cost and Metrics 451

Troubleshooting IPv6 Routes Added by OSPFv3 453

Review Activities 455

Chapter 18 Implementing EIGRP for IPv6 460

Foundation Topics 461

EIGRPv6 Configuration 461

EIGRPv6 Configuration Basics 461

EIGRPv6 Configuration Example 462

Other EIGRPv6 Configuration Settings 464

Setting Bandwidth and Delay to Influence EIGRPv6 Route Selection 464

EIGRP Load Balancing 465

EIGRP Timers 466

EIGRPv6 Concepts, Verification, and Troubleshooting 466

EIGRPv6 Interfaces 467

EIGRPv6 Neighbors 469

EIGRPv6 Topology Database 470

EIGRPv6 IPv6 Routes 472

Review Activities 474

Part V Review 480

Part VI: Network Management 485

Chapter 19 M anaging Network Devices 486

Foundation Topics 487

Simple Network Management Protocol 487

Describing SNMP 487

The Management Information Base 488

Configuring SNMP Version 2c 490

SNMP Version 3 491

System Message Logging (Syslog) 492

An Overview of System Message Logging 492

System Message Format 493

System Message Severity Levels 494

Configuring and Verifying Syslog 494

Using a Syslog Server 495

NetFlow 495

An Overview of NetFlow 496

Network Flows 497

Configuring NetFlow 497

Verifying and Using NetFlow 498

The NetFlow Collector 500

Review Activities 501

Chapter 20 Managing IOS Files 504

Foundation Topics 505

Managing Cisco IOS Files 505

Upgrading a Cisco IOS Software Image into Flash Memory 505

The Cisco IOS Software Boot Sequence 507

The Three Router Operating Systems 508

The Configuration Register 509

How a Router Chooses Which OS to Load 509

Recovering If the IOS Does Not Load 511

Verifying the IOS Image Using the show version Command 512

Password Recovery 513

The General Ideas Behind Cisco Password Recovery/Reset 514

A Specific Password Reset Example 515

Managing Configuration Files 517

Configuration File Basics 517

Copying and Erasing Configuration Files 519

Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 521

Review Activities 522

Chapter 21 M anaging IOS Licensing 526

Foundation Topics 527

IOS Packaging 527

IOS Images per Model, Series, and per Software Version/Release 527

Original Packaging: One IOS Image per Feature Set Combination 528

New IOS Packaging: One Universal Image with All Feature Sets 528

IOS Software Activation with Universal Images 529

Managing Software Activation with Cisco License Manager 530

Manually Activating Software Using Licenses 531

Example of Manually Activating a License 533

Showing the Current License Status 533

Adding a Permanent Technology Package License 535

Right-to-Use Licenses 536

Review Activities 539

Part VI Review 542

Part VII: Final Review 545

Chapter 22 Final Review 546

Advice About the Exam Event 546

Learn the Question Types Using the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial 546

Think About Your Time Budget Versus Numbers of Questions 547

A Suggested Time-Check Method 548

Miscellaneous Pre-Exam Suggestions 548

Exam-Day Advice 548

Exam Review 549

Practice Subnetting and Other Math-Related Skills 549

Take Practice Exams 551

Practicing Taking the ICND2 Exam 551

Practicing Taking the CCNA Exam 552

Advice on How to Answer Exam Questions 553

Find Knowledge Gaps Through Question Review 554

Practice Hands-On CLI Skills 556

Review Mind Maps from Part Review 557

Do Labs 557

Other Study Tasks 558

Final Thoughts 558

Part VIII: Appendixes 561

Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables 563

Appendix B ICND2 Exam Updates 571

Glossary 572

DVD-Only Appendixes:

Appendix C Answers to the Review Questions

Appendix D Memory Tables

Appendix E Memory Tables Answer Key

Appendix F Mind Map Solutions

Appendix G Study Planner

9781587144882 TOC 5/29/2013

Additional information

Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-101 Official Cert Guide, Academic Edition by Wendell Odom
Wendell Odom
Used - Very Good
Pearson Education (US)
Book picture is for illustrative purposes only, actual binding, cover or edition may vary.
This is a used book - there is no escaping the fact it has been read by someone else and it will show signs of wear and previous use. Overall we expect it to be in very good condition, but if you are not entirely satisfied please get in touch with us.