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Cities and Urban Life By John J. Macionis

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Cities and Urban Life Summary

Cities and Urban Life: United States Edition by John J. Macionis

Cities and Urban Life, authored by two of the best-known textbook writers in the field, provides a comprehensive introduction to urban sociology, urban anthropology, and urban studies courses. Primarily sociological in approach, this book incorporates historical, social, psychological, geographical, and anthropological insights. While strong in the classical urban sociology, it also gives extensive attention to the "new" political economy approach to urban studies. Also, the authors use global cities as case studies for more relevance to students.

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About John J. Macionis

John J. Macionis was born and raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He earned a bachelor's degree from Cornell University and a doctorate in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania.

John Macionis' publications are wide-ranging, focusing on community life in the United States, interpersonal intimacy in families, effective teaching, humor, new information technology, and the importance of global education.

In addition, John Macionis and Nijole V. Benokraitis have edited the best-selling anthology Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology. Macionis and Vincent Parrillo have written the leading urban studies text, Cities and Urban Life (Pearson). Macionis' most recent textbook is Social Problems (Pearson).

John Macionis is Professor and Distinguished Scholar of Sociology at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, where he has taught for almost thirty years. During that time, he has chaired the Sociology Department, directed the college's multidisciplinary program in humane studies, presided over the campus senate and the college's faculty, and taught sociology to thousands of students.

In 2002, the American Sociological Association presented Macionis with the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Teaching, citing his innovative use of global material as well as the introduction of new teaching technology in his textbooks.

Professor Macionis has been active in academic programs in other countries, having traveled to some fifty nations. He writes, "I am an ambitious traveler, eager to learn and, through the texts, to share much of what I discover with students, many of whom know little about the rest of the world. For me, traveling and writing are all dimensions of teaching. First, and foremost, I am a teacher-a passion for teaching animates everything I do."

At Kenyon, Macionis teaches a number of courses, but his favorite class is Introduction to Sociology, which he offers every semester. He enjoys extensive contact with students and invites everyone enrolled in each of his classes to enjoy a home-cooked meal.

The Macionis family-John, Amy, and children McLean and Whitney-live on a farm in rural Ohio. In his free time, Macionis enjoys tennis, swimming, hiking, and playing oldies rock-and-roll (he recently released his first CD). Macionis is as an environmental activist in the Lake George region of New York's Adirondack Mountains, working with a number of organizations, including the Lake George Land Conservancy, where he serves as president of the board of trustees.

Vincent N. Parrillo was born and raised in Paterson, New Jersey. He received his B.S. degree from Seton Hall University, his M.A. from Montclair State University, and his doctorate from Rutgers University.

His books include: Strangers to These Shores 9th ed. (Allyn & Bacon, 2008); Diversity in America 3rd ed. (Pine Forge Press, 2008); Contemporary Social Problems 6th ed. (Allyn & Bacon, 2005); Understanding Race and Ethnic Relations 3rd ed. (Allyn & Bacon, 2008); William Paterson University (Arcadia, 2005); Millennium Haze: Comparative Inquiries About Society, State and Community (FrancoAngeli, 2000); Ridgewood (Arcadia, 1999); and (ed.) Rethinking Today's Minorities (Greenwood Press, 1991). He is General Editor of the two-volume interdisciplinary Encyclopedia of Social Problems (Sage, 2008).

He is the executive producer and writer of two award- winning PBS television documentaries: Smokestacks and Steeples: A Portrait of Paterson (1992) and Ellis Island: Gateway to America (1991).

Table of Contents





Special Features


Part I Understanding the City, ITS ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT

Chapter 1: Exploring the City

Chapter 2: The Origins and Development of the World's Cities

Chapter 3: The Development of North American Cities

Chapter 4: Today's Cities and Suburbs

Part II Disciplinary Perspectives

Chapter 5: Urban Sociology: Classic and Modern Statements

Chapter 6: Spatial Perspectives: Making Sense ofSpace

Chapter 7: Critical Urban Sociology

Chapter 8: Social Psychology: The Urban Experience

Chapter 9: Comparative Urbanism: The City and Culture

Part III The Structure of the City

Chapter 10: Stratification and Social Class: Urban and SuburbanLifestyles

Chapter 11: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: UrbanDiversity

Chapter 12: Housing, Education, Crime: Confronting Urban Problems

Part IV Global Urban Developments

Chapter 13: Cities in the Developing World

Chapter 14: Planning the Urban Environment


Special Features


Part I : Understanding the City, ITS ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT

Chapter 1 Exploring the City

Why Study the City?

Urbanization as a Process

Levels of Urbanization

Urbanism as a Way of Life

The Complexity of the City: Various Perspectives

The City in History

The Emergence of Urban Sociology

Critical Urban Sociology: The City and Capitalism

Social Psychology: The Urban Experience

Geography and Spatial Perspectives

Comparative Urbanism: The City and Culture

The Anatomy of Modern North American Cities

The City in Global Perspective

The Quality of City Life

Key Terms

Internet Activities

Chapter 2 The Origins and Development of the World's Cities

Urban Origins

Archaeology: Digging the Early City

The First Permanent Settlements

The City Emerges

The First Urban Revolution: City-States and Urban Empires

The Near East: Mesopotamia and Egypt

The Indus Region

A Glance Eastward: China

A Glance Westward: The Americas

Summary: Traits of Early Cities

Crete and Greece


Decline: The Middle Ages

Revival: Medieval and Renaissance Cities

The Second Urban Revolution: The Rise of Modern Cities

Case Study: London-The History of a World City

Beginnings: 55 b.c.e-1066 c.e.

The Medieval City: 1066-1550

The World City Emerges: 1550-1800

Industrialization and Colonization: 1800-1900

The Modern Era: 1900 to the Present



Key Terms

Internet Activities

Chapter 3The Development of North American Cities

The Colonial Era: 1600-1800

Colonial City Characteristics

The City-Instigated Revolutionary War

Growth and Expansion: 1800-1870

The Beginnings of Industrialization

Urban-Rural/North-South Tensions

The Era of the Great Metropolis: 1870-1950

Technological Advance

Suburbs and the Gilded Age

The Great Migration

Politics and Problems

The Quality of Life in the New Metropolis

The North American City Today: 1950 to the Present


The Sunbelt Expansion

The Coming of the Postindustrial City

Deterioration and Regeneration

The Future

The Human Cost of Economic Restructuring

Case Study: New York-The "Big Apple"

The Colonial Era

Growth and Expansion

The Great Metropolis Emerges

New York Today



Key Terms

Internet Activities

Chapter 4Today's Cities and Suburbs

Urban and Suburban Sprawl

What Is Sprawl?

Why Do We Have Sprawl?

Sprawl Consequences

Smart Growth

Land Purchases

Urban Growth Boundaries

Revitalizing Existing Cities and Towns

Transit-Oriented Approaches


The New Cities

Characteristics and Commonalities

Types of Edge Cities

Evolving Middle-Class Centers

Three Edge City Variations

Gated Communities

Types of Gated Communities

A Sense of Community

Common-Interest Developments

Case Study: Portland, Oregon

The Physical Setting


Urban Decline and the Planners' Response to Sprawl

Portland Today



Key Terms

Internet Activities

Part II: Disciplinary Perspectives

Chapter 5 Urban Sociology: Classic and Modern Statements

The European Tradition: 1846-1921

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: From Barbarism to Civilization

Ferdinand Toennies: From Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft

Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity

Georg Simmel: The Mental Life of the Metropolis

Max Weber: The Historical and Comparative Study of Cities

The European Tradition: An Evaluation

Urban Sociology in North America: 1915-1970

Robert Park and Sociology at the University of Chicago

Louis Wirth and Urban Theory

Herbert Gans and the Urban Mosaic

Wirth and Gans: A Comparison

The Classic Theories and Modern Research: Myths and Realities

Tolerance in the City

Impersonality in the City

Density and Urban Pathology

Urban Malaise

New Directions in Urban Sociology



Key Terms

Internet Activities

Chapter 6Spatial Perspectives: Making Sense of Space

Urban Geography

The Location of Cities

Why Cities Are Where They Are

The Shape of the City

The Radiocentric City

The Gridiron City

Urban Ecology

Concentric Zones


Multiple Nuclei


Social Area Analysis and Mapping

GIS Mapping


The Los Angeles School and Postmodernism

Building Blocks

Main Arguments




Key Terms

Internet Activities

Chapter 7 Critical Urban Sociology

Urban Economics: The Traditional Perspective

Central Place Theory

The General Pattern of Land Use


Political Economy: The "New" Perspective

Henri Lefebvre: Redefining the Study of Cities

Urban Areas as Themed Environments

David Harvey: The Baltimore Study

Manuel Castells: Updating Marx

Allen Scott: Business Location and the Global Economy

John Logan and Harvey Molotch: Urban Growth Machines

The Global Economy


Economic Restructuring

World-Systems Analysis

Urban Political Economy: Four Principles

The Urbanization of Poverty

The Developing World

The Developed World



Key Terms

Internet Activities

Chapter 8 Social Psychology: The Urban Experience

The Physical Environment

Kevin Lynch: The Image of the City

Stanley Milgram: More on Mental Maps

The Social Environment: Gesellschaft

The Pedestrian: Watching Your Step

A World of Strangers

Class, Race, and the Urban Experience

The City as Gesellschaft: A Reassessment

The Social Environment: Gemeinschaft

Urban Networks

Identifying with the City

The City as Gemeinschaft: A Reassessment

The Texture of the City

Humanizing the City

Social Movements and City Life

Suburban Life

The Stereotypes

The Physical Environment

The Social Environment



Key Terms

Internet Activities

Chapter 9Comparative Urbanism: The City and Culture

The City and the Countryside


Urban Dominance

The City and Civilization

Oswald Spengler: The "Soul" of the City

Lewis Mumford: The City as the Center of Civilization

Daniel J. Monti: The Civic Culture of the City

The City and Societal Culture

Case Study: Ming Peking

Physical Structure


Case Study: Hellenic Athens

The Preclassical Period

The Golden Age

Behind the Glory

Ming Peking and Athens: A Comparison

The Culture of Capitalism and the City

The Capitalist City

The Industrial Revolution

Urban Life as Economics

Assets and Debits

Case Study: Communist Beijing

The Emergence of Modern Beijing

Urban Life as Politics

The Difficulties of Urban Life

Economic Reform and Environmental Issues

A Rising Consumerism



Key Terms

Internet Activities

Part III: The Structure of the City

Chapter 10 Stratification and Social Class: Urban and Suburban Lifestyles

Social Stratification

Social Class Distinctions

Income Distribution Nationwide

Incomes Within and Outside Cities

Poverty Nationwide

Poverty Within and Outside Cities

A Cautionary Note

Urban Social Class Diversity

Upper-Class Urban Neighborhoods

Middle-Class Urban Neighborhoods

Working-Class Urban Neighborhoods

Mixed-Income Urban Neighborhoods

Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

The Homeless

Suburban Social Class Diversity

Upper-Income Suburbs

Middle-Income Suburbs

Working-Class Suburbs

Suburban Cosmopolitan Centers

Minority Suburbs



Key Terms

Internet Activities

Chapter 11Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Urban Diversity

Cities and Immigrants

Ethnic Enclaves and Ethnic Identity

Ethnic Change

Racial and Ethnic Minorities





Native Peoples

Women and Urban Life


Urban Space

The Public Sphere

Case Study: Chicago, "City of the Big Shoulders"

Early Chicago

The Burning and Rebuilding of Chicago

Jane Addams and Hull House

Chicago in the Early Twentieth Century

The Postwar Period

Chicago Today



Key Terms

Internet Activities

Chapter 12Housing, Education, Crime: Confronting Urban Problems

Housing: A Place to Live

Adequate Housing: Who Has It?

Housing Problems: A Brief History

Public Housing

Deterioration and Abandonment in the Inner City

The Inner City Today: A Revival?

The New Urbanism

Education: The Urban Challenge

Meeting the "No Child Left Behind" Challenge

Magnet Schools

School Vouchers

Charter Schools

Crime: Perception and Reality

Public Perception of Crime

Explaining High-Crime Areas

Effects of Crime on Everyday Life

What Is the Solution?



Key Terms

Internet Activities

Part IV: Global Urban Developments

Chapter 13Cities in the Developing World

Latin American Cities

Early Cities

European Dominance

Modern Cities

African Cities

Early Cities

European Dominances

Modern Cities

Middle Eastern Cities

Islamic Cities

European Dominance

Modern Cities

Asian Cities




Southeast Asia

Common Legacies

Economic Legacies

Political Legacies

Common Problems

Spiraling Populations

Quality of Life





Key Terms

Internet Activities

Chapter 14 Planning the Urban Environment


City Planning in World History

Why Plan?

Planning in the Industrial Era: 1800-1900

The "City Beautiful" Movement

The New Towns Movement

A Socialist-Feminist New Town

British New Towns

New Towns Worldwide

New Towns in North America

What Makes New Towns Succeed or Fail?

Architectural Visions

The Radiant City

Broadacre City

The Arcology


Utopia's Limitations

More Focused Urban Planning

Sidewalks and Neighborhoods

Squares and Parks

The Middle Ground

The Realities of Urban Planning

Economics and Politics

The Importance of Values

Case Study: Toronto, Ontario

The Physical Setting


Creation of a Metropolitan Government

Two Phases of Urban Planning

Toronto Today



Key Terms


Photo Credits


Additional information

Cities and Urban Life: United States Edition by John J. Macionis
John J. Macionis
Used - Very Good
Pearson Education (US)
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