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Methods in Behavioral Research By Paul C. Cozby

Methods in Behavioral Research

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Methods in Behavioral Research Summary

Methods in Behavioral Research by Paul C. Cozby

Methods in Behavioral Research has achieved its market-leading position with its concise and strategic approach to methodological decision making. Combining helpful pedagogy and rich examples, Cozby's eleventh edition again incorporates learning objectives, illustrative graphics, and activities to increase student involvement. Highlights of the new edition include a broader introduction of different research techniques in Chapter 4, extensive revision of the "validity of measurements" section, and updated structural equations models.

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About Paul C. Cozby

Paul C. Cozby is Professor of Psychology at California State University, Fullerton, and Northcentral University. Dr. Cozby was an undergraduate at the University of California, Riverside, and received his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Minnesota. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, member of the Association for Psychological Science, and has served as officer of the Society for Computers in Psychology. He is Executive Officer of the Western Psychological Association. He is the author of Using Computers in the Behavioral Sciences and co-editor with Daniel Perlman of Social Psychology. Scott C. Bates is a Professor of Psychology, Associate Dean of the School of Graduate Studies, and Associate Vice President for Research at Utah State University. He earned a B.S. in Psychology from Whitman College, an M.S. in Psychology from Western Washington University, and a Ph.D. in social psychology from Colorado State University. His research interests and experiences are varied. He has conducted research in areas as wide-ranging as adolescent problem behavior and problem-behavior prevention, teaching and learning in higher education, and the psychology consequences of growing and tending plants in outer space.

Table of Contents

1. Scientific Understanding of BehaviorUses of Research MethodsThe Scientific ApproachGoals of ScienceBasic and Applied ResearchStudy TermsReview QuestionsActivity QuestionsAnswers 2. Where to StartHypotheses and Predictions?Who We Study: A Note on TerminologySource of IdeasLibrary Researchanatomy of a Research ArticleStudy TermsReview QuestionsActivity Questions 3. Ethical Researchmilgram's Obedience ExperimentThe Belmont Report>/h4>Assessment of Risks and BenefitsInformed ConsentThe Importance of DebriefingAlternatives to DeceptionJustice and the Selection of ParticipantsResearcher CommitmentsFederal Regulations and the Institutional Review BoardAPA Ethics CodeResearch with Human ParticipantsEthics and Animal ResearchRisks and Benefits RevisitedMisrepresentation: Fraud and PlagiarismEthical Issues: Illustrative ArticleStudy TermsReview QuestionsActivity QuestionsAnswers 4. Studying BehaviorValidity: An Introduction VariablesOperational Definitions of VariablesRelationships Between VariablesNonexperimental Versus Experimental MethodsIndependent and Dependent VariablesInternal Validity: Inferring CausalityExternal ValidityChoosing a MethodEvaluating Research: Summary of the Three ValiditiesStudying Behavior: Illustrative ArticleStudy TermsReview QuestionsActivity QuestionsAnswers 5. Measurement ConceptsReliability of MeasuresConstruct Validity of MeasuresResearch on Personality and Individual DifferencesReactivity of MeasuresVariables and Measurement ScalesMeasurement Concepts: Illustrative ArticleStudy TermsReview QuestionsActivity Questions 6. Observational MethodsQuantitative and Qualitative ApproachesNaturalistic ObservationSystematic ObservationCase StudiesArchival ResearchObservational Methods: Illustrative ArticleStudy TermsReview QuestionsActivity QuestionsAnswers 7. Asking People About Themselves: Survey ResearchWhy Conduct Surveys?Constructing Questions to AskResponses to Questions Finalizing the Questionnaire Administering SurveysSurvey Designs to Study Changes Over TimeSampling From a PopulationSampling TechniquesEvaluating SamplesReasons for Using Convenience SamplesSurvey Research: Illustrative ArticleStudy TermsReview QuestionsActivity QuestionsAnswers 8. Experimental DesignConfounding and Internal ValidityBasic ExperimentsAssigning Participants to Experimental ConditionsIndependent Groups Design Repeated Measures DesignMatched Pairs DesignExperimental Design: Illustrative ArticleStudy TermsReview QuestionsActivity Questions 9. Conducting ExperimentsSelecting Research ParticipantsManipulating the Independent VariableMeasuring the Dependent VariableAdditional ControlsAdditional ConsiderationsAnalyzing and Interpreting ResultsCommunicating Research to OthersConducting Experiments: Illustrative ArticleStudy TermsReview QuestionsActivity QuestionsAnswers 10. Complex Experimental DesignsIncreasing the Number of Levels of an Independent VariableIncreasing the Number of Independent Variables: Factorial DesignsIllustrative Article: Complex Experimental DesignsStudy TermsReview QuestionsActivity QuestionsAnswers 11. Quasi-Experimental and Single-Participant DesignsSingle Case Experimental DesignsProgram EvaluationQuasi-Experimental DesignsDevelopmental Research DesignsIllustrative ArticleStudy TermsReview QuestionsActivity Questions 12. Understanding Research Results: Description and CorrelationScales of Measurement: A ReviewAnalyzing the Results of Research InvestigationsFrequency DistributionsDescriptive StatisticsGraphing RelationshipsCorrelation Coefficients: Describing the Strength of RelationshipsEffect SizeRegression EquationsMultiple Correlation / RegressionPartial Correlation and the Third-Variable ProblemStructural Equation ModelingStudy TermsReview QuestionsActivity QuestionsAnswers 13. Understanding Research Results: Statistical InferenceSamples and PopulationsInferential StatisticsNull and Research HypothesesProbability and Sampling DistributionsExample: The T and F TestsType I and Type Ii ErrorsChoosing a Significance LevelInterpreting Nonsignificant ResultsChoosing a Sample Size: Power AnalysisThe Importance of ReplicationsSignificance of a Pearson R Correlation CoefficientComputer Analysis of DataSelecting the Appropriate Statistical TestStudy TermsReview QuestionsActivity Questions 14. Generalizing ResultsGeneralizing to Other Populations of Research ParticipantsCultural Considerations Generalizing to Other ExperimentersPretests and GeneralizationGeneralizing from Laboratory SettingsThe Importance of ReplicationsEvaluating Generalizations Via Literature Reviews and Meta-AnalysesUsing Research to Improve LivesGeneralizing Results: Illustrative ArticleStudy TermsReview QuestionsActivity Questions Appendix A: Writing Research ReportsIntroductionWriting StyleOrganization of the ReportThe Use of HeadingsCiting and Referencing SourcesAbbreviationsSome Grammatical ConsiderationsReporting Numbers and StatisticsConclusionPaper and Poster PresentationsSample Paper Appendix B: Statistical TestsDescriptive StatisticsStatistical Significance and Effect Size Appendix C: Statistical TablesTable C.1 Critical Values of Chi-SquareTable C.2 Critical Values of TTable C.3 Critical Values of FTable C.4 Critical Values of R (Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient) Glossary References Credits Index

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Methods in Behavioral Research by Paul C. Cozby
Paul C. Cozby
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McGraw-Hill Education - Europe
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