Fundamentals of Sound with Applications to Speech and Hearing presents a clear and precise treatment of the physics of sound while using a level of math suitable for readers in the speech, language, hearing, and health sciences.
This text provides undergraduate students with an understanding of the science of sound. Simple mathematics, graphics, and qualitative descriptions are demonstrated to explain wave concepts, spectrograms, intensity, and decibels. Concepts are applied to the physics of speech and hearing.
The graphical approach is supplemented by animations available on an associated Web site containing a complete tutorial with questions that the student can answer. Hints and textual references are given if the wrong answer is chosen and a complete explanation of the question is provided.
Each chapter concludes with "Exercises."1. Introduction to Waves.
Types of Waves.
Propagation Velocity and Medium Velocity.
Sinusoidal Waves: More Terminology.
Oscillating Things and Sinusoidal Waves.
Application of the Concept of Waves to Sound.
Relationship Among v, f and <0108>.
Wave Velocity and Properties of the Medium.
Elastic Properties of Air.
Reflection and Transmission of Waves.
Interference and Superposition.2. Standing Waves in Ropes and Strings.
Formation of Standing Waves.
Normal Modes for a String Tied at Both Ends.
Normal Modes for String Tied at One End and Free at the Other.
Normal Modes for a String Loose at Both Ends.3. Standing Waves in Air Columns.
Longitudinal Displacement Waves.
Normal Modes for an Air Column Closed at Both Ends.
Normal Modes for an Air Column Open at Both Ends.
Normal Modes for an Air Column with One End Open and One End Closed.4. Resonance. 5. Wavefronts.
Wavefronts and Space Interference.
Diffraction of Waves.6. Complex Waves.
Phase of a Wave.
Complex Wave Forms.
Complex Traveling Waves.
Complex Standing Waves.
Non-Repetitive Sounds.7. Wave Analysis.
Behavior of the String with Time.
Rules for Repeat Frequencies of Complex Waves.
Fourier Analysis of Traveling Waves.
Exercises.8. Speech Production.
Vocal Fold Vibration.
Acoustic Properties of the Vocal Tract.
Sound Spectrographs.9. Acoustics of Different Speech Sounds.
Glide and Liquid Consonants.
Coarticulation.10. Work and Energy.
Work and Energy.
Relation of Wave Energy to Wave Amplitude.
Units of Energy.
Relation of Energy to Power.
Relation of Power to Intensity.
Audible Levels of Intensity.
Scientific Notation (Powers of Ten).
Expressing Arbitrary Numbers in Scientific Notation.
Addition and Subtraction of Arbitrary Numbers in Scientific Notation.
Multiplication and Division of Arbitrary Numbers in Scientific Notation.11. Perception of Sound Intensity.
The Bel Scale for Sound Intensities.
The Decibel Scale for Sound Intensities.
Fractional Powers of Ten.
Logs of Products and Quotients.
Logs of Numbers Between 0 and 1, and Greater than 10.
Logs and Negative Numbers.
Some Examples Involving Decibels.
Intensity Level vs. Loudness Level.
Negative Decibel Values.
The Addition of Intensity and Loudness.12. The Ear and the Hearing Mechanism.
The Outer Ear.
The Middle Ear.
The Inner Ear.
The Process of Hearing.