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The Physical Universe By Konrad Krauskopf

The Physical Universe

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The Physical Universe Summary

The Physical Universe by Konrad Krauskopf

The Physical Universe, 16e by Konrad Krauskopf and Arthur Beiser is an outstanding text with a long history that has been updated and given a fresh look. This edition is also accompanied by a strong media component with the Connect online homework system and LearnSmart Smartbook. Aimed at presenting the essentials of physics, chemistry, earth science, and astronomy in a clear, easy-to-understand way, The Physical Universe shows students how science works, how scientists approach problems, and why science constantly evolves in its search for understanding.

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About Konrad Krauskopf

Konrad B. Krauskopf was born and raised in Madison, Wisconsin and earned a B.S. in chemistry from University of Wisconsin in 1931. He then earned a Ph.D. in chemistry at the University of California in Berkeley. When the Great Depression made jobs in chemistry scarce, Professor Krauskopf decided to study geology, which had long fascinated him. Through additional graduate work at Stanford University, he earned a second Ph.D. and eventually a position on the Stanford faculty. He remained at Stanford until his retirement in 1976. During his tenure, Professor Krauskopf also worked at various times with the U.S. Geological Survey, served with the U.S. army in occupied Japan, and traveled to Norway, France, and Germany on sabbatical leaves. His research interests included field work on granites and metamorphic rocks and laboratory study on applications of chemistry to geologic problems, especially the formation of ore deposits. In recent years, Professor Krauskopf had spent time working with various government agencies on the problem of radioactive waste disposal. Professor Krauskopf passed away on May 8, 2003. Arthur Beiser, a native of New York City, received B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in physics from New York University, where he later served as Associate Professor of Physics. He then was a Senior Research Scientist at the Lamont Geo- logical Observatory of Columbia University. His research interests were chiefly in cosmic rays and in magnetohydrodynamics as applied to geophysics and astrophys- ics. In addition to theoretical work, he participated in a cosmic-ray expedition to an Alaskan peak and directed a search for magnetohydrodynamic waves from space in various Pacific locations. A Fellow of The Explorers Club, Dr. Beiser was the first chairman of its Committee on Space Exploration. He is the author or coauthor of 36 books, mostly college texts on physics and mathematics, 14 of which have been translated into a total of 27 languages. Two of his books are on sailing, The Proper Yacht and The Sailors World. Figure 13-21 is a photograph of Dr. Beiser at the helm of his 58-ft sloop; he and his wife Germaine have sailed over 150,000 miles, includ- ing two Atlantic crossings and a rounding of Cape Horn. Germaine Beiser, who has degrees in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and New York University, is the author or coauthor of seven books on various aspects of physics and has contributed to The Physical Universe. For a number of years she was the editor of a cruising guide to the Adriatic Sea.

Table of Contents

1 The Scientific MethodHow Scientists Study Nature1.1 The Scientific Method1.2 Why Science Is SuccessfulThe Solar System1.3 A Survey of the Sky1.4 The Ptolemaic System1.5 The Copernican System1.6 Kepler's Laws1.7 Why Copernicus Was RightUniversal Gravitation1.8 What Is Gravity?1.9 Why the Earth Is Round1.10 The Tides1.11 The Discovery of NeptuneHow Many of What1.12 The SI System2 MotionDescribing Motion2.1 Speed2.2 Vectors2.3 Acceleration2.4 Distance, Time, and AccelerationAcceleration due to Gravity2.5 Free Fall2.6 Air ResistanceForce and Motion2.7 First law of Motion2.8 Mass2.9 Second law of Motion2.10 Mass and Weight2.11 Third law of MotionGravitation2.12 Circular Motion2.13 Newton's Law of Gravity2.14 Artificial Satellites3 EnergyWork3.1 The Meaning of Work3.2 PowerEnergy3.3 Kinetic Energy3.4 Potential Energy3.5 Energy Transformations3.6 Conservation of Energy3.7 The Nature of HeatMomentum3.8 Linear Momentum3.9 Rockets3.10 Angular MomentumRelativity3.11 Special Relativity3.12 Rest Energy3.13 General RelativityEnergy and Civilization3.14 The Energy Problem3.15 The Future4 Energy and the FutureThe Energy Problem4.1 Population and Prosperity4.2 Energy Consumption4.3 Global Warming4.4 Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse EffectFossil Fuels4.5 Liquid Fuels4.6 Natural Gas4.7 CoalAlternative Sources4.8 A Nuclear World?4.9 Clean Energy I4.10 Clean Energy II4.11 Energy Storage4.12 BiofuelsStrategies for the Future4.13 Conservation4.14 What Governments Must Do5 Matter and HeatTemperature and Heat5.1 Temperature5.2 Heat5.3 Metabolic EnergyFluids5.4 Density5.5 Pressure5.6 Buoyancy5.7 Gas LawsKinetic Theory of Matter5.8 Kinetic Theory of Gases5.9 Molecular Motion and TemperatureChanges of State5.10 Heat Transfer5.11 Liquids and Solids5.12 Evaporation and Boiling5.13 MeltingEnergy Transformations5.14 Heat Engines5.15 Thermodynamics5.16 Fate of the Universe5.17 Entropy6 Electricity and MagnetismElectric Charge6.1 Positive and Negative Charge6.2 What Is Charge?6.3 Coulomb's Law6.4 Force on an Uncharged ObjectElectricity and Matter6.5 Matter in Bulk6.6 Conductors and Insulators6.7 SuperconductivityElectric Current6.8 The Ampere6.9 Potential Difference6.10 Ohm's Law6.11 Electric PowerMagnetism6.12 Magnets6.13 Magnetic Field6.14 Oersted's Experiment6.15 ElectromagnetsUsing Magnetism6.16 Magnetic Force on a Current6.17 Electric Motors6.18 Electromagnetic Induction6.19 Transformers7 WavesWave Motion7.1 Water Waves7.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves7.3 Describing Waves7.4 Standing WavesSound Waves7.5 Sound7.6 Doppler Effect7.7 Musical SoundsElectromagnetic Waves7.8 Electromagnetic Waves7.9 Types of EM Waves7.10 Light "Rays"Wave Behavior7.11 Reflection7.12 Refraction7.13 Lenses7.14 The Eye7.15 Color7.16 Interference7.17 Diffraction8 The NucleusAtom and Nucleus8.1 Rutherford Model of the Atom8.2 Nuclear StructureRadioactivity8.3 Radioactive Decay8.4 Half-Life8.5 Radiation HazardsNuclear Energy8.6 Units of Mass and Energy8.7 Binding Energy8.8 Binding Energy per NucleonFission and Fusion8.9 Nuclear Fission8.10 How a Reactor Works8.11 Plutonium8.12 A Nuclear World?8.13 Nuclear FusionElementary Particles8.14 Antiparticles8.15 Fundamental Interactions8.16 Leptons and Hadrons9 The AtomQuantum Theory of Light9.1 Photoelectric Effect9.2 Photons9.3 What Is Light?9.4 X-RaysMatter Waves9.5 De Broglie9.6 Waves of What?9.7 Uncertainty PrincipleThe Hydrogen Atom9.8 Atomic Spectra9.9 The Bohr Model9.10 Electron Waves and Orbitals9.11 The LaserQuantum Theory of the Atom9.12 Quantum Mechanics9.13 Quantum Numbers9.14 Exclusion Principle10 The Periodic LawElements and Compounds10.1 Chemical Change10.2 Three Classes of Matter10.3 The Atomic TheoryThe Periodic Law10.4 Metals and Nonmetals10.5 Chemical Activity10.6 Families of Elements10.7 The Periodic Table10.8 Groups and PeriodsAtomic Structure10.9 Shells and Subshells10.10 Explaining the Periodic TableChemical Bonds10.11 Types of Bond10.12 Covalent Bonding10.13 Ionic Bonding10.14 Ionic Compounds10.15 Atoms Groups10.16 Naming Compounds10.17 Chemical Equations11 Crystals, Ions, and SolutionsSolids11.1 Ionic and Covalent Crystals11.2 The Metallic Bond11.3 Molecular CrystalsSolutions11.4 Solubility11.5 Polar and Nonpolar Liquids11.6 Ions in Solution11.7 Evidence for Dissociation11.8 Water11.9 Water PollutionAcids and Bases11.10 Acids11.11 Strong and Weak Acids11.12 Bases11.13 The pH Scale11.14 Salts12 Chemical ReactionsQuantitative Chemistry12.1 Phlogiston12.2 Oxygen12.3 The Mole12.4 Formula UnitsChemical Energy12.5 Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions12.6 Chemical Energy and Stability12.7 Activation energyFuels12.8 Liquid Fuels12.9 Gas Fuels12.10 Solid FuelsReaction Rates12.11 Temperature12.12 Other Factors12.13 Chemical Equilibrium12.14 Altering an EquilibriumOxidation and Reduction12.15 Electrolysis12.16 Electrochemical cells13 Organic ChemistryCarbon Compounds13.1 Carbon Bonds13.2 Alkanes13.3 Petroleum ProductsStructures of Organic Molecules13.4 Structural Formulas13.5 Isomers13.6 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons13.7 BenzeneOrganic Compounds13.8 Hydrocarbon Groups13.9 Functional Groups13.10 PolymersChemistry of Life13.11 Carbohydrates13.12 Photosynthesis13.13 Lipids13.14 Proteins13.15 Soil Nitrogen13.16 Nucleic Acids13.17 Origin of Life14 Atmosphere and HydrosphereThe Atmosphere14.1 Regions of the Atmosphere14.2 Atmospheric Moisture14.3 CloudsWeather14.4 Atmospheric Energy14.5 The Seasons14.6 Winds14.7 General Circulation of the Atmosphere14.8 Middle-Latitude Weather SystemsClimate14.9 Tropical Climates14.10 Middle- and High-Latitude Climates14.11 Climatic Changes14.12 Origins of Climatic ChangeThe Hydrosphere14.13 Ocean Basins14.14 Ocean Currents15 The Rock CycleRocks15.1 Composition of the Crust15.2 Minerals15.3 Igneous Rocks15.4 Sedimentary Rocks15.5 Metamorphic RocksWithin the Earth15.6 Earthquakes15.7 Structure of the Earth15.8 The Earth's Interior15.9 GeomagnetismErosion15.10 Weathering15.11 Stream Erosion15.12 Glaciers15.13 Groundwater15.14 SedimentationVulcanism15.15 Volcanoes15.16 Intrusive Rocks15.17 The Rock Cycles16 The Evolving EarthTectonic Movement16.1 Types of Movement16.2 Mountain Building16.3 Continental DriftPlate Tectonics16.4 Lithosphere and Asthenosphere16.5 The Ocean Floors16.6 Ocean-Floor Spreading16.7 Plate TectonicsMethods of Historical Geology16.8 Principles of Uniform Change16.9 Rock Formations16.10 Radiometric Dating16.11 Fossils16.12 Geologic TimeEarth History16.13 Precambrian Time16.14 The Paleozoic Era16.15 Coal and Petroleum16.16 The Mesozoic Era16.17 The Cenozoic Era16.18 Human History17 The Solar SystemThe Family of the Sun17.1 The Solar System17.2 Comets17.3 MeteorsThe Inner Planets17.4 Mercury17.5 Venus17.6 Mars17.7 Is There Life On Mars?17.8 AsteroidsThe Outer Planets17.9 Jupiter17.10 Saturn17.11 Uranus, Neptune, PlutoThe Moon17.12 Phases17.13 Eclipses17.14 Lunar Surface and Interior17.15 Evolution of the Lunar Landscape17.16 Origin of the Moon18 The StarsTools of Astronomy18.1 The Telescope18.2 The Spectrometer18.3 Spectrum AnalysisThe Sun18.4 Properties of the Sun18.5 The Aurora18.6 Sunspots18.7 Solar EnergyThe Stars18.8 Stellar Distances18.9 Variable Stars18.10 Stellar Motions18.11 Stellar PropertiesLife Histories of the Stars18.12 H-R Diagrams18.13 Stellar Evolution18.14 Supernovas18.15 Pulsars18.16 Black Holes19 The UniverseGalaxies19.1 The Milky Way19.2 Stellar Populations19.3 Radio Astronomy19.4 Galaxies19.5 Cosmic RaysThe Expanding Universe19.6 Red Shifts19.7 QuasarsEvolution of the Universe19.8 Dating the Universe19.9 After the Big Bang19.10 Origin of the Solar SystemExtraterrestrial Life19.11 Extrasolar Planets19.12 Interstellar Travel19.13 Interstellar CommunicationMath RefresherThe ElementsAnswers to Odd-Numbered Exercises

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The Physical Universe by Konrad Krauskopf
Konrad Krauskopf
Used - Very Good
McGraw-Hill Education - Europe
Book picture is for illustrative purposes only, actual binding, cover or edition may vary.
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